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Treatment of stage II seminoma

Clair J Beard, MD
William K Oh, MD
Section Editor
Philip W Kantoff, MD
Deputy Editor
Michael E Ross, MD


Testicular cancer is the most common solid malignancy affecting males aged 15 to 35 years, although these tumors only account for approximately 1 percent of all cancers in men [1]. Germ cell tumors (GCTs), which account for 95 percent of testicular cancers, are one of the most curable solid neoplasms due to treatment advances that began in the late 1970s.

GCTs can consist of one histologic pattern or a mix of multiple histologic types. Testicular GCTs are divided into two groups:

Pure seminoma (ie, no nonseminomatous elements), which constitute approximately 60 percent of GCTs [2,3].

Nonseminomatous GCTs (NSGCTs), which may include elements of seminoma along with one or more other histologic types.

Clinical stage II disease is defined by the presence of pure seminoma in the orchiectomy specimen and imaging studies of the abdomen and pelvis that show positive regional lymph nodes (table 1A-B). Positive nodes are those that measure at least 10 mm on the short axis of cross-sectional imaging. Other potential sites of metastasis, such as the chest, are free of disease. About 15 percent of patients with seminoma have stage II disease at presentation [4].


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Literature review current through: Mar 2017. | This topic last updated: May 04, 2016.
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