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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 42

of 'Treatment of relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia'

Incidence and risk factors of bleeding-related adverse events in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia treated with ibrutinib.
Lipsky AH, Farooqui MZ, Tian X, Martyr S, Cullinane AM, Nghiem K, Sun C, Valdez J, Niemann CU, Herman SE, Saba N, Soto S, Marti G, Uzel G, Holland SM, Lozier JN, Wiestner A
Haematologica. 2015 Dec;100(12):1571-8. Epub 2015 Oct 1.
Ibrutinib is associated with bleeding-related adverse events of grade≤2 in severity, and infrequently with grade≥3 events. To investigate the mechanisms of bleeding and identify patients at risk, we prospectively assessed platelet function and coagulation factors in our investigator-initiated trial of single-agent ibrutinib for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. At a median follow-up of 24 months we recorded grade≤2 bleeding-related adverse events in 55% of 85 patients. No grade≥3 events occurred. Median time to event was 49 days. The cumulative incidence of an event plateaued by 6 months, suggesting that the risk of bleeding decreases with continued therapy. At baseline, von Willebrand factor and factor VIII levels were often high and normalized on treatment. Platelet function measured via the platelet function analyzer (PFA-100™) was impaired in 22 patients at baseline and in an additional 19 patients on ibrutinib (often transiently). Collagen and adenosine diphosphate induced platelet aggregation was tested using whole blood aggregometry. Compared to normal controls, response to both agonists was decreased in all patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, whether on ibrutinib or not. Compared to untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients, response to collagen showed a mild further decrement on ibrutinib, while response to adenosine diphosphate improved. All parameters associated with a significantly increased risk of bleeding-related events were present at baseline, including prolonged epinephrine closure time (HR 2.74, P=0.012), lower levels of von Willebrand factor activity (HR 2.73, P=0.009) and factor VIII (HR 3.73, P=0.0004). In conclusion, both disease and treatment-related factors influence the risk of bleeding. Patients at greater risk for bleeding of grade≤2 can be identified by clinical laboratory tests and counseled to avoid aspirin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and fish oils. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01500733.
Hematology Branch, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA Department of Internal Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York, NY, USA.