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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 46

of 'Treatment of relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adults'

Approval summary: nelarabine for the treatment of T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma.
Cohen MH, Johnson JR, Massie T, Sridhara R, McGuinn WD Jr, Abraham S, Booth BP, Goheer MA, Morse D, Chen XH, Chidambaram N, Kenna L, Gobburu JV, Justice R, Pazdur R
Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12(18):5329.
PURPOSE: To describe the clinical studies, chemistry manufacturing and controls, and clinical pharmacology and toxicology that led to Food and Drug Administration approval of nelarabine (Arranon) for the treatment of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoblastic lymphoma.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Two phase 2 trials, one conducted in pediatric patients and the other in adult patients, were reviewed. The i.v. dose and schedule of nelarabine in the pediatric and adult studies was 650 mg/m2/d daily for 5 days and 1,500 mg/m2 on days 1, 3, and 5, respectively. Treatments were repeated every 21 days. Study end points were the rates of complete response (CR) and CR with incomplete hematologic or bone marrow recovery (CR*).
RESULTS: The pediatric efficacy population consisted of 39 patients who had relapsed or had been refractory to two or more induction regimens. CR to nelarabine treatment was observed in 5 (13%) patients and CR+CR* was observed in 9 (23%) patients. The adult efficacy population consisted of 28 patients. CR to nelarabine treatment was observed in 5 (18%) patients and CR+CR* was observed in 6 (21%) patients. Neurologic toxicity was dose limiting for both pediatric and adult patients. Other severe toxicities included laboratory abnormalities in pediatric patients and gastrointestinal and pulmonary toxicities in adults.
CONCLUSIONS: On October 28, 2005, the Food and Drug Administration granted accelerated approval for nelarabine for treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoblastic lymphoma after at least two prior regimens. This use is based on the induction of CRs. The applicant will conduct postmarketing clinical trials to show clinical benefit (e.g., survival prolongation).
Division of Drug Oncology Products, Office of Oncology Drug Products, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA. martin.cohen@fda.hhs.gov