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Treatment of primary non-muscle invasive urothelial bladder cancer

Wassim Kassouf, MD, CM, FRCS
Peter Black, MD, FACS, FRCSC
Section Editor
Seth P Lerner, MD
Deputy Editor
Michael E Ross, MD


Globally, bladder cancer accounts for approximately 390,000 cases and 150,000 deaths each year [1]. In developed areas of the world, such as North America and Western Europe, these bladder cancers are predominantly urothelial (formerly called transitional cell). (See "Epidemiology and risk factors of urothelial (transitional cell) carcinoma of the bladder", section on 'Epidemiology'.)

Approximately 70 percent of new urothelial bladder cancer cases are classified as non-muscle invasive [2]. Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer includes Ta (papillary), T1 (submucosal invasive) tumors (table 1), and Tis (carcinoma in situ [CIS]), which account for approximately 70, 20, and 10 percent of non-muscle invasive cancers, respectively. (See "Pathology of bladder neoplasms", section on 'Non-invasive urothelial neoplasms'.)

The prognostic factors, risk stratification, and initial management of primary non-muscle invasive bladder cancer are discussed here, while the management of recurrent or persistent non-muscle invasive bladder cancer is discussed separately. (See "Management of recurrent or persistent non-muscle invasive bladder cancer".)

Other related topics include:

(See "Clinical presentation, diagnosis, and staging of bladder cancer".)


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