Medline ® Abstract for Reference 44
of 'Treatment of malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary'
Conservative surgery to preserve ovarian function in patients with malignant ovarian germ cell tumors. A review of 74 cases.
Low JJ, Perrin LC, Crandon AJ, Hacker NF
BACKGROUND: Effective combination chemotherapy has improved the previously dismal prognosis for malignant ovarian germ cell tumors (MOGCT) dramatically. In young patients, conservative surgery with adjuvant chemotherapy has made the preservation of fertility possible, even in patients with advanced disease. The increase in cure rates has shifted the focus of recent studies to the long term menstrual, reproductive, and gynecologic outcomes in these patients.
METHODS: The current study is a retrospective review of 74 patients with MOGCT treated by conservative surgery, retaining the uterus and contralateral ovary to preserve ovarian function, with or without chemotherapy.
RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 20.9 years (range, 10-35 years). The histologic subtypes included 31 dysgerminomas (41.9%), 16 immature teratomas (21.6%), 13 endodermal sinus tumors (17.6%), 11 mixed germ cell tumors (14.9%), and 3 embryonal cell tumors (4.1%). There were 56 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Stage I tumors (75.7%), 3 Stage II tumors, (4.1%), 11 Stage III tumors (14.9%), and 4 Stage IV tumors (5.4%). Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered in 47 patients (63.5%). The overall mean follow-up period was 52.1 months. There were 7 recurrences (9.5%) and 2 deaths (2.7%). Survival for patients with Stage I disease was 98.2% and that for patients with advanced disease stages was 94.4%. During chemotherapy 61.7% of patients developed amenorrhea but 91.5% of these women resumed normal menstrual function on completion of chemotherapy. Fourteen healthy live births were recorded in the chemotherapy group and there were no documented birth defects. There was 1 case of infertility (1.4%).
CONCLUSIONS: The surgical approach in young patients with MOGCT confined to a single ovary should aim to preserve fertility. Advanced disease is not usually accompanied by contralateral ovarian disease and should not necessarily contraindicate conservative surgery. The majority of these patients who have received combination chemotherapy resume normal ovarian function and can expect a normal fertility rate and healthy offspring.
KK Gynaecological Cancer Centre, Women's Specialist Clinics, KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore, Republic of Singapore.