Medline ® Abstracts for References 88,89

of 'Treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in adults who require hospitalization'

88
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Causes and factors associated with early failure in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia.
AU
Rosón B, CarratalàJ, Fernández-SabéN, Tubau F, Manresa F, Gudiol F
SO
Arch Intern Med. 2004;164(5):502.
 
BACKGROUND: Early failure is a matter of great concern in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia. However, information on its causes and risk factors is lacking.
METHODS: Observational analysis of a prospective series of 1383 nonimmunosuppressed hospitalized adults with community-acquired pneumonia. Early failure was defined as lack of response or worsening of clinical or radiologic status at 48 to 72 hours requiring changes in antibiotic therapy or invasive procedures. Concordance of antimicrobial therapy was examined for cases with an etiologic diagnosis.
RESULTS: At 48 to 72 hours, 238 patients (18%) remained febrile, but most of them responded without further changes in antibiotic therapy. Eighty-one patients (6%) had early failure. The main causes of early failure were progressive pneumonia (n = 54), pleural empyema (n = 18), lack of response (n = 13), and uncontrolled sepsis (n = 9). Independent factors associated with early failure were older age (>65 years) (odds ratio [OR], 0.35), multilobar pneumonia (OR, 1.81), Pneumonia SeverityIndex score greater than 90 (OR, 2.75), Legionella pneumonia (OR, 2.71), gram-negative pneumonia (OR, 4.34), and discordant antimicrobial therapy (OR, 2.51). Compared with treatment responders, early failures had significantly higher rates of complications (58% vs 24%) and overall mortality (27% vs 4%) (P<.001 for both).
CONCLUSIONS: Early failure is infrequent but is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Its detection and management require careful clinical assessment. Most cases occur because of inadequate host-pathogen responses. Discordant therapy is a less frequent cause of failure, which may be preventable by rational application of the current antibiotic guidelines.
AD
Infectious Disease Service, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, University of Barcelona, L'Hospitalet, Barcelona, Spain.
PMID
89
TI
Validation of predictive rules and indices of severity for community acquired pneumonia.
AU
Ewig S, de Roux A, Bauer T, García E, Mensa J, Niederman M, Torres A
SO
Thorax. 2004;59(5):421.
 
BACKGROUND: A study was undertaken to validate the modified American Thoracic Society (ATS) rule and two British Thoracic Society (BTS) rules for the prediction of ICU admission and mortality of community acquired pneumonia and to provide a validation of these predictions on the basis of the pneumonia severity index (PSI).
METHOD: Six hundred and ninety six consecutive patients (457 men (66%), mean (SD) age 67.8 (17.1) years, range 18-101) admitted to a tertiary care hospital were studied prospectively. Of these, 116 (16.7%) were admitted to the ICU.
RESULTS: The modified ATS rule achieved a sensitivity of 69% (95% CI 50.7 to 77.2), specificity of 97% (95% CI 96.4 to 98.9), positive predictive value of 87% (95% CI 78.3 to 93.1), and negative predictive value of 94% (95% CI 91.8 to 95.8) in predicting admission to the ICU. The corresponding predictive indices for mortality were 94% (95% CI 82.5 to 98.7), 93% (95% CI 90.6 to 94.7), 49% (95% CI 38.2 to 59.7), and 99.5% (95% CI 98.5 to 99.9), respectively. These figures compared favourably with both the BTS rules. The BTS-CURB criteria achieved predictions of pneumonia severity and mortality comparable to the PSI.
CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the power of the modified ATS rule to predict severe pneumonia in individual patients. It may be incorporated into current guidelines for the assessment of pneumonia severity. The CURB criteria may be used as an alternative tool to PSI for the detection of low risk patients.
AD
Augusta Kranken-Anstalt Bochum, Klinik für Pneumologie, Beatmungsmedizin und Infektiologie, Bochum, Germany.
PMID