Medline ® Abstracts for References 88,89
of 'Treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in adults who require hospitalization'
Adverse outcomes in patients with community acquired pneumonia discharged with clinical instability from Internal Medicine Department.
Dagan E, Novack V, Porath A
Scand J Infect Dis. 2006;38(10):860.
There are well established admission criteria for patients suffering from community-acquired pneumonia, yet the clinical tool for decision to discharge the hospitalized patient is lacking. Continuous pressure to reduce hospital expenditures can lead to a premature discharge of unstable patients. The current study assessed the impact of clinical instability at discharge on short-term outcomes. Demographic data, background disease, laboratory tests results and PORT score were assessed prospectively. On the last day of the hospitalization 7 physiological parameters of instability were evaluated. 60 d composite mortality and readmission rate was a primary outcome measure. Of the 373 patients, 22% were discharged with 1 or more instabilities, of whom 26.8% reached primary outcome within 60 d, compared to 8.2% of patients with no instabilities. 60 d death rate was 2.1% in the former group, compared to 14.6% in the unstable patients (p<0.001). Instability on discharge remained a significant prognosticator of adverse outcome (odds ratio 3.5; 95% CI 1.8-6.8) after adjustment for pneumonia severity and baseline comorbidity. We concluded that discharging an unstable patient hospitalized with pneumonia is associated with elevated risk of death or readmission within 60 d. Pneumonia guidelines should include objective criteria for judging patients' stability and promptness for discharge.
Soroka University Medical Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel.
Efficacy of short-course antibiotic regimens for community-acquired pneumonia: a meta-analysis.
Li JZ, Winston LG, Moore DH, Bent S
Am J Med. 2007;120(9):783.
PURPOSE: There is little consensus on the most appropriate duration of antibiotic treatment for community-acquired pneumonia. The goal of this study is to systematically review randomized controlled trials comparing short-course and extended-course antibiotic regimens for community-acquired pneumonia.
METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and CENTRAL, and reviewed reference lists from 1980 through June 2006. Studies were included if they were randomized controlled trials that compared short-course (7 days or less) versus extended-course (>7 days) antibiotic monotherapy for community-acquired pneumonia in adults. The primary outcome measure was failure to achieve clinical improvement.
RESULTS: We found 15 randomized controlled trials matching our inclusion and exclusion criteria comprising 2796 total subjects. Short-course regimens primarily studied the use of azithromycin (n=10), but trials examining beta-lactams (n=2), fluoroquinolones (n=2), and ketolides (n=1) were found as well. Of the extended-course regimens, 3 studies utilized the same antibiotic, whereas 9 involved an antibiotic of the same class. Overall, there was no difference in the risk of clinical failure between the short-course and extended-course regimens (0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78-1.02). In addition, there were no differences in the risk of mortality (0.81, 95% CI, 0.46-1.43) or bacteriologic eradication (1.11, 95% CI, 0.76-1.62). In subgroup analyses, there was a trend toward favorable clinical efficacy for the short-course regimens in all antibiotic classes (range of relative risk, 0.88-0.94).
CONCLUSIONS: The available studies suggest that adults with mild to moderate community-acquired pneumonia can be safely and effectively treated with an antibiotic regimen of 7 days or less. Reduction in patient exposure to antibiotics may limit the increasing rates of antimicrobial drug resistance, decrease cost, and improve patient adherence and tolerability.
Department of Medicine, San Francisco VA Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143-0862, USA. email@example.com