Medline ® Abstracts for References 77,78,83
of 'Treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in adults who require hospitalization'
Epidemiology of community-acquired pneumonia in adults: a population-based study.
Almirall J, Bolíbar I, Vidal J, Sauca G, Coll P, Niklasson B, BartoloméM, BalanzóX
Eur Respir J. 2000;15(4):757.
In this prospective study, the authors assessed the incidence, aetiology, and outcome of patients with community-acquired pneumonia in the general population. From December 1993 to November 1995, a study was performed in a mixed residential-industrial urban population of the "Maresme" region in Barcelona, Spain. All subjects>or =14 yrs of age (annual average population size 74,368 inhabitants) with clinically suspected community-acquired pneumonia were registered. All cases were re-evaluated by chest radiographs on the 5th day of illness and at monthly intervals until complete recovery. Urine and blood samples were obtained for culture and antigen detection. When lower respiratory tract secretions were obtained, these were also cultured. There were 241 patients with community-acquired pneumonia, with an annual incidence rate of 1.62 cases (95% confidence interval, 1.42-1.82) per 1,000 inhabitants. Incidence rates increased by age groups and were higher in males than in females. Of 232 patients with aetiological data, 104 had an identifiable aetiology. A total of 114 pathogens were found (single pathogen 94, two pathogens 10). There were 81 episodes of bacterial infection and 33 of viral infection. The most common pathogens were Streptococcus pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and influenza A and B viruses. No case of Hantavirus infection was found. The rate of hospital admission was 61.4% with a mean+/-SD length of 11.7+/-10.1 days, a mean period of 23.0+/-14.3 days inactivity, and an overall mortality rate of 5%. The high rate of hospital admission, prolonged stay in hospital, and long period of inactivity all continue to constitute a social and health care burden of community-acquired pneumonia.
Critical Care Unit, Hospital de Mataró, Barcelona, Spain.
Early switch from intravenous to oral cephalosporins in the treatment of hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia.
Ramirez JA, Srinath L, Ahkee S, Huang A, Raff MJ
Arch Intern Med. 1995;155(12):1273.
BACKGROUND: Switch therapy is defined as the early transition from intravenous to oral antibiotics during treatment of infection. This study was designed to evaluate the clinical outcome and length of stay of hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia treated with an early switch from intravenous to oral third-generation cephalosporins.
METHODS: Patients with a new roentgenographic pulmonary infiltrate and at least two symptoms (cough, fever, or leukocytosis) were enrolled in this study and treated with intravenous ceftizoxime sodium (1 g every 12 hours) or ceftriaxone sodium (1 g every 24 hours). Patients were switched to oral cefixime (400 mg every 24 hours) as soon as they met the following criteria: (1) resolution of fever; (2) improvement of cough and respiratory distress; (3) improvement of leukocytosis; and (4) presence of normal gastrointestinal tract absorption.
RESULTS: Of the 120 patients enrolled, 75 (62%) had clinical data evaluated. Long-term follow-up showed that 74 patients (99%) were cured; one patient required readmission for further intravenous therapy. Mean duration of hospital stay was 4 days.
CONCLUSIONS: This investigation demonstrated that an early switch to oral cefixime may be reasonable in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia who have already shown a good clinical and laboratory response to therapy with intravenous third-generation cephalosporins. This approach is clinically effective and minimizes hospital stay.
Department of Medicine, University of Louisville (Ky) School of Medicine.
The utility of an in-hospital observation period after discontinuing intravenous antibiotics.
Dunn AS, Peterson KL, Schechter CB, Rabito P, Gotlin AD, Smith LG
Am J Med. 1999;106(1):6.
PURPOSE: To determine whether observing patients overnight in the hospital after intravenous antibiotics have been discontinued is a useful way to identify important clinical events.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of patients admitted during a 6-month period to a tertiary care teaching hospital with a primary diagnosis of either pneumonia, urinary tract infection, or cellulitis who were treated with intravenous antibiotics. Charts were abstracted for patient characteristics, including comorbid illnesses and laboratory values, as well as for evidence of recurrent infection or other adverse events.
RESULTS: Of the 374 patients in the study, 63 (17%) were discharged on the day intravenous antibiotics were discontinued. These patients were 10 years younger (P = 0.0009) and had fewer comorbid illnesses (P = 0.02) than those who were observed in the hospital. Recurrent infection was noted in 3 (1%; 95% confidence interval 0.2% to 3%) of the 308 patients who were observed. A mild adverse antibiotic reaction was also noted in three observed patients. The readmission rate to the same institution for recurrent infection was 3% for patients with an observation period and 2% for patients without an observation period (P = 0.70).
CONCLUSIONS: Observing patients overnight in the hospital after discontinuing intravenous antibiotics is a common clinical practice. There was an extremely low incidence of adverse events during the observation period, and the events that did occur would have been discovered in an outpatient setting. In-hospital observation after discontinuing intravenous antibiotics is unnecessary for most patients with pneumonia, urinary tract infection, or cellulitis and greatly increases health-care costs.
Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, New York 10029, USA.