Medline ® Abstracts for References 77,78,83

of 'Treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in adults who require hospitalization'

77
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The utility of an in-hospital observation period after discontinuing intravenous antibiotics.
AU
Dunn AS, Peterson KL, Schechter CB, Rabito P, Gotlin AD, Smith LG
SO
Am J Med. 1999;106(1):6.
 
PURPOSE: To determine whether observing patients overnight in the hospital after intravenous antibiotics have been discontinued is a useful way to identify important clinical events.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of patients admitted during a 6-month period to a tertiary care teaching hospital with a primary diagnosis of either pneumonia, urinary tract infection, or cellulitis who were treated with intravenous antibiotics. Charts were abstracted for patient characteristics, including comorbid illnesses and laboratory values, as well as for evidence of recurrent infection or other adverse events.
RESULTS: Of the 374 patients in the study, 63 (17%) were discharged on the day intravenous antibiotics were discontinued. These patients were 10 years younger (P = 0.0009) and had fewer comorbid illnesses (P = 0.02) than those who were observed in the hospital. Recurrent infection was noted in 3 (1%; 95% confidence interval 0.2% to 3%) of the 308 patients who were observed. A mild adverse antibiotic reaction was also noted in three observed patients. The readmission rate to the same institution for recurrent infection was 3% for patients with an observation period and 2% for patients without an observation period (P = 0.70).
CONCLUSIONS: Observing patients overnight in the hospital after discontinuing intravenous antibiotics is a common clinical practice. There was an extremely low incidence of adverse events during the observation period, and the events that did occur would have been discovered in an outpatient setting. In-hospital observation after discontinuing intravenous antibiotics is unnecessary for most patients with pneumonia, urinary tract infection, or cellulitis and greatly increases health-care costs.
AD
Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, New York 10029, USA.
PMID
78
TI
In-hospital observation after antibiotic switch in pneumonia: a national evaluation.
AU
Nathan RV, Rhew DC, Murray C, Bratzler DW, Houck PM, Weingarten SR
SO
Am J Med. 2006;119(6):512.e1.
 
PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical benefit of in-hospital observation after the switch from intravenous (IV) to oral antibiotics in a large Medicare population. Retrospective studies of relatively small size indicate that the practice of in-hospital observation after the switch from IV to oral antibiotics for patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is unnecessary.
METHODS: We performed a retrospective examination of the US Medicare National Pneumonia Project database. Eligible patients were discharged with an ICD-9-CM diagnosis consistent with community-acquired pneumonia and divided into 2 groups: 1) a "not observed" cohort, in which patients were discharged on the same day as the switch from IV to oral antibiotics and 2) an "observed for 1 day" cohort, in which patients remained hospitalized for 1 day after the switch from IV to oral antibiotics. We compared clinical outcomes between these 2 cohorts.
RESULTS: A total of 39,242 cases were sampled, representing 4341 hospitals in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. There were 5248 elderly patients who fulfilled eligibility criteria involving a length of stay of no more than 7 hospital days (2536 "not observed" and 2712 "observed for 1 day" patients). Mean length of stay was 3.8 days for the "not observed" cohort and 4.5 days for the "observed for 1 day" cohort (P<.0001). There was no significant difference in 14-day hospital readmission rate (7.8% in the "not observed" cohort vs 7.2% "observed for 1 day" cohort, odds ratio 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI]0.74-1.12; P =.367) and 30-day mortality rate (5.1% "not observed" cohort vs 4.4% in the "observed for 1 day" cohort, odds ratio 0.86; 95% CI, 0.67-1.11; P =.258) between the "not observed" and "observed for 1 day" cohorts.
CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis of the US Medicare Pneumonia Project database provides further evidence that the routine practice of in-hospital observation after the switch from IV to oral antibiotics for patients with CAP may be avoided in patients who are clinically stable although these findings should be verified in a large randomized controlled trial.
AD
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, Calif, USA.
PMID
83
TI
Impact of an antimicrobial stewardship intervention on shortening the duration of therapy for community-acquired pneumonia.
AU
Avdic E, Cushinotto LA, Hughes AH, Hansen AR, Efird LE, Bartlett JG, Cosgrove SE
SO
Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Jun;54(11):1581-7. Epub 2012 Apr 10.
 
BACKGROUND: Initial management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has been a Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services performance measure for a decade. We hypothesized that an intervention directed at management of CAP that assesses areas not covered by the performance measures-treatment duration and antimicrobial selection after additional microbiology data are available--would further improve CAP management.
METHODS: We performed a single-center, prospective study to compare management of adult inpatients with presumed CAP before (from 1 January 2008 through 31 March 2008) and after (from 1 February 2010 through 10 May 2010) an intervention consisting of education and prospective feedback to teams regarding antibiotic choice and duration. The primary outcome measure was duration of antibiotic therapy in the 2 periods.
RESULTS: There were 62 patients in the preintervention period and 65 patients in the intervention period. The duration of antibiotic therapy decreased from a median of10 to 7 days (P<.001), with 148 fewer days of antibiotic therapy. The median lengths of stay were similar in the 2 groups (4 vs 5 days). A causative pathogen was identified less frequently during the intervention period (14% vs 34%); however, antibiotics were more frequently narrowed or modified on the basis of susceptibility results during the intervention period (67% vs 19%). Fewer patients received duplicate therapy within 24 hours in the intervention period (90% vs 55%).
CONCLUSIONS: The duration of therapy for CAP was excessive at our institution and was decreased with a stewardship intervention. Confirmatory studies at other institutions are needed; efforts to assess and reduce duration of therapy for CAP should be strongly considered.
AD
Department of Pharmacy, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287-5425, USA. eavdic1@jhmi.edu
PMID