Medline ® Abstracts for References 77,78,83
of 'Treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in adults who require hospitalization'
Reaching stability in community-acquired pneumonia: the effects of the severity of disease, treatment, and the characteristics of patients.
Menéndez R, Torres A, Rodríguez de Castro F, Zalacaín R, Aspa J, Martín Villasclaras JJ, Borderías L, Benítez Moya JM, Ruiz-Manzano J, Blanquer J, Pérez D, Puzo C, Sánchez-Gascón F, Gallardo J, Alvarez CJ, Molinos L, Neumofail Group
Clin Infect Dis. 2004;39(12):1783.
BACKGROUND: The natural history of the resolution of infectious parameters in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is not completely known. The aim of our study was to identify those factors related to host characteristics, the severity of pneumonia, and treatment that influence clinical stability.
METHODS: In a prospective, multicenter, observational study, we observed 1424 patients with CAP who were admitted to 15 Spanish hospitals. The main outcome variable was the number of days needed to reach clinical stability (defined as a temperature of<or=37.2 degrees C, a heart rate of<or=100 beats/min, a respiratory rate of<or=24 breaths/min, systolic blood pressure of>or=90 mm Hg, and oxygen saturation>or=90% or arterial oxygen partial pressure of>or=60 mm Hg).
RESULTS: The median time to stability was 4 days. A Cox proportionalhazard model identified 6 independent variables recorded during the first 24 h after hospital admission related to the time needed to reach stability: dyspnea (hazard ratio [HR], 0.76), confusion (HR, 0.66), pleural effusion (HR, 0.67), multilobed CAP (HR, 0.72), high pneumonia severity index (HR, 0.73), and adherence to the Spanish guidelines for treatment of CAP (HR, 1.22). A second Cox model was performed that included complications and response to treatment. This model identified the following 10 independent variables: chronic bronchitis (HR, 0.81), dyspnea (HR, 0.79), confusion (HR, 0.61), multilobed CAP (HR, 0.84), initial severity of disease (HR, 0.73), treatment failure (HR, 0.31), cardiac complications (HR, 0.66), respiratory complications (HR, 0.77), empyema (HR, 0.57), and admission to the intensive care unit (HR, 0.57).
CONCLUSIONS: Some characteristics of CAP are useful at the time of hospital admission to identify patients who will need a longer hospital stay to reach clinical stability. Empirical treatment that follows guidelines is associated with earlier clinical stability. Complications and treatment failure delay clinical stability.
Servicio de Neumología, Hospital Universitario La Fe, Valencia, Spain. email@example.com
Processes and outcomes of care for patients with community-acquired pneumonia: results from the Pneumonia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT) cohort study.
Fine MJ, Stone RA, Singer DE, Coley CM, Marrie TJ, Lave JR, Hough LJ, Obrosky DS, Schulz R, Ricci EM, Rogers JC, Kapoor WN
Arch Intern Med. 1999;159(9):970.
BACKGROUND: Although understanding the processes of care and medical outcomes for patients with community-acquired pneumonia is instrumental to improving the quality and cost-effectiveness of care for this illness, limited information is available on how physicians manage patients with this illness or on medical outcomes other than short-term mortality.
OBJECTIVES: To describe the processes of care and to assess a broad range of medical outcomes for ambulatory and hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia.
METHODS: This prospective, observational study was conducted at 4 hospitals and 1 health maintenance organization in Pittsburgh, Pa, Boston, Mass, and Halifax, Nova Scotia. Data were collected via patient interviews and reviews of medical records for 944 outpatients and 1343 inpatients with clinical and radiographic evidence of community-acquired pneumonia. Processes of care and medical outcomes were assessed 30 days after presentation.
RESULTS: Only 29.7% of outpatients had 1 or more microbiologic tests performed, and only 5.7% had an assigned microbiologic cause. Although 95.7% of inpatients had 1 or more microbiologic tests performed, a cause was established in only 29.6%. Six outpatients (0.6%) died, and 3 of these deaths were pneumonia related. Of surviving outpatients, 8.0% had 1 or more medical complications. At 30 days, 88.9% (nonemployed) to 95.6% (employed) of the surviving outpatients had returned to usual activities, yet 76.0% of outpatients had 1 or more persisting pneumonia-related symptoms. Overall, 107 inpatients (8.0%) died, and 81 of these deaths were pneumonia related. Most surviving inpatients (69.0%) had 1 or more medical complications. At 30 days, 57.3% (non-employed) to 82.0% (employed) of surviving inpatients had returned to usual activities, and 86.1% had 1 or more persisting pneumonia-related symptoms.
CONCLUSIONS: In this study, conducted primarily at hospital sites with affiliated medical education training programs, virtually all outpatients and most inpatients had pneumonia of unknown cause. Although outpatients had an excellent prognosis, pneumonia-related symptoms often persisted at 30 days. Inpatients had substantial mortality, morbidity, and pneumonia-related symptoms at 30 days.
Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, PA, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Early switch from intravenous to oral cephalosporins in the treatment of hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia.
Ramirez JA, Srinath L, Ahkee S, Huang A, Raff MJ
Arch Intern Med. 1995;155(12):1273.
BACKGROUND: Switch therapy is defined as the early transition from intravenous to oral antibiotics during treatment of infection. This study was designed to evaluate the clinical outcome and length of stay of hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia treated with an early switch from intravenous to oral third-generation cephalosporins.
METHODS: Patients with a new roentgenographic pulmonary infiltrate and at least two symptoms (cough, fever, or leukocytosis) were enrolled in this study and treated with intravenous ceftizoxime sodium (1 g every 12 hours) or ceftriaxone sodium (1 g every 24 hours). Patients were switched to oral cefixime (400 mg every 24 hours) as soon as they met the following criteria: (1) resolution of fever; (2) improvement of cough and respiratory distress; (3) improvement of leukocytosis; and (4) presence of normal gastrointestinal tract absorption.
RESULTS: Of the 120 patients enrolled, 75 (62%) had clinical data evaluated. Long-term follow-up showed that 74 patients (99%) were cured; one patient required readmission for further intravenous therapy. Mean duration of hospital stay was 4 days.
CONCLUSIONS: This investigation demonstrated that an early switch to oral cefixime may be reasonable in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia who have already shown a good clinical and laboratory response to therapy with intravenous third-generation cephalosporins. This approach is clinically effective and minimizes hospital stay.
Department of Medicine, University of Louisville (Ky) School of Medicine.