Medline ® Abstracts for References 77,78,83
of 'Treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in adults who require hospitalization'
Early administration of antibiotics does not shorten time to clinical stability in patients with moderate-to-severe community-acquired pneumonia.
Silber SH, Garrett C, Singh R, Sweeney A, Rosenberg C, Parachiv D, Okafo T
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine if there is a statistically significant difference in the time to clinical stability (TCS) between those patients with moderate-to-severe (MTS) community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) who received their antibiotics within 4 h and those who received their antibiotics after 4 h.
DESIGN: Prospective observational study.
SETTING: A large metropolitan teaching institution with 62,000 annual emergency department visits from May 1999 through January 2001.
PATIENTS: Patients were>or = 21 year with MTS CAP as defined by the Pneumonia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT).
INTERVENTIONS: Triage-to-needle time (group 1, 0 to 240 min; group 2, 241 to 480 min; and group 3,>480 min) was the independent variable, and TCS was the dependent variable. Our hypothesis was that door-to-needle time<4 h would result in TCS reduction of 0.5 days.
MEASUREMENTS: Statistical analysis was performed using the two-tailed Student t test, analysis of variance, and multiple linear regression; p<0.05 was considered significant.
RESULTS: Four hundred nine patients with MTS CAP achieved clinical stability during their hospital stay. Fifty-four percent of patients received antibiotics within 4 h. The mean time to receiving antibiotics was 131.46 min (2.19 h) in group 1, 335.52 min (5.59 h) in group 2, and 783.98 min (13.07 h) in group 3. Mean TCS was 3.19 days in group 1, 3.16 days in group 2, and 3.29 days in group 3. There were no statistically significant differences in TCS between the study groups.
CONCLUSION: The administration of antibiotics within 4 h does not reduce the TCS in adult patients with MTS-CAP, as defined by the PORT group. Future studies using other physiologic parameters should be explored.
Department of Emergency Medicine, New York Methodist Hospital, Brooklyn, NY 11215, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Delayed administration of antibiotics and atypical presentation in community-acquired pneumonia.
Waterer GW, Kessler LA, Wunderink RG
OBJECTIVES: The time to the first antibiotic dose (TFAD) has been adopted as a measure of quality of care in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) based on two retrospective studies of large Medicare databases. The mechanism by which a difference of a few hours in receiving antibiotics can be deleterious is difficult to understand given the historical data regarding how long it takes for antibiotics to influence outcome. We investigated the factors that predict a prolonged TFAD and their association with mortality.
DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.
SETTING: A large tertiary hospital.
PATIENTS: Immunocompetent adults admitted to the hospital with CAP.
RESULTS: A total of 451 patients with CAP were studied. A TFAD of>4 h was associated with increased mortality (p = 0.017).Altered mental state (p = 0.001), absence of fever (p = 0.02), absence of hypoxia (p = 0.025), and increasing age (p = 0.038) were significant predictors of a TFAD of>4 h. After adjusting for these factors, the association between TFAD and mortality was not statistically significant (p = 0.131). Similar findings were observed in patients who were>or = 65 years.
CONCLUSIONS: A delay in administering antibiotics in patients with CAP is more common in patients who present with an altered mental state or minimal signs of sepsis. TFAD is likely to be a marker of comorbidities driving both an atypical presentation and mortality rather than directly contributing to outcome. Using TFAD as an indicator of quality of care in patients with CAP without significant additional clinical information is potentially misleading as the relationships among TFAD, comorbidities, and outcome are complex.
University of Western Australia, School of Medicine and Pharmacology, 4th Floor MRF Building, Royal Perth Hospital, GPO Box X2213, Perth, WA, Australia 6847. email@example.com
Reaching stability in community-acquired pneumonia: the effects of the severity of disease, treatment, and the characteristics of patients.
Menéndez R, Torres A, Rodríguez de Castro F, Zalacaín R, Aspa J, Martín Villasclaras JJ, Borderías L, Benítez Moya JM, Ruiz-Manzano J, Blanquer J, Pérez D, Puzo C, Sánchez-Gascón F, Gallardo J, Alvarez CJ, Molinos L, Neumofail Group
Clin Infect Dis. 2004;39(12):1783.
BACKGROUND: The natural history of the resolution of infectious parameters in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is not completely known. The aim of our study was to identify those factors related to host characteristics, the severity of pneumonia, and treatment that influence clinical stability.
METHODS: In a prospective, multicenter, observational study, we observed 1424 patients with CAP who were admitted to 15 Spanish hospitals. The main outcome variable was the number of days needed to reach clinical stability (defined as a temperature of<or=37.2 degrees C, a heart rate of<or=100 beats/min, a respiratory rate of<or=24 breaths/min, systolic blood pressure of>or=90 mm Hg, and oxygen saturation>or=90% or arterial oxygen partial pressure of>or=60 mm Hg).
RESULTS: The median time to stability was 4 days. A Cox proportionalhazard model identified 6 independent variables recorded during the first 24 h after hospital admission related to the time needed to reach stability: dyspnea (hazard ratio [HR], 0.76), confusion (HR, 0.66), pleural effusion (HR, 0.67), multilobed CAP (HR, 0.72), high pneumonia severity index (HR, 0.73), and adherence to the Spanish guidelines for treatment of CAP (HR, 1.22). A second Cox model was performed that included complications and response to treatment. This model identified the following 10 independent variables: chronic bronchitis (HR, 0.81), dyspnea (HR, 0.79), confusion (HR, 0.61), multilobed CAP (HR, 0.84), initial severity of disease (HR, 0.73), treatment failure (HR, 0.31), cardiac complications (HR, 0.66), respiratory complications (HR, 0.77), empyema (HR, 0.57), and admission to the intensive care unit (HR, 0.57).
CONCLUSIONS: Some characteristics of CAP are useful at the time of hospital admission to identify patients who will need a longer hospital stay to reach clinical stability. Empirical treatment that follows guidelines is associated with earlier clinical stability. Complications and treatment failure delay clinical stability.
Servicio de Neumología, Hospital Universitario La Fe, Valencia, Spain. firstname.lastname@example.org