Medline ® Abstracts for References 64,65
of 'Treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in adults who require hospitalization'
Association between Staphylococcus aureus strains carrying gene for Panton-Valentine leukocidin and highly lethal necrotising pneumonia in young immunocompetent patients.
Gillet Y, Issartel B, Vanhems P, Fournet JC, Lina G, Bes M, Vandenesch F, Piémont Y, Brousse N, Floret D, Etienne J
BACKGROUND: Between 1986 and 1998, eight cases of community-acquired pneumonia due to Staphylococcus aureus strains carrying the gene for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) were recorded in France, six of which were fatal. We aimed to assess the clinical features of these eight cases, and those of other cases identified prospectively, and to compare them with the characteristics of patients with pneumonia caused by PVL-negative strains.
METHODS: We compared eight retrospective and eight prospective cases of PVL-positive S aureus pneumonia with 36 cases of PVL-negative S aureus pneumonia. For all patients, we recorded age, length of hospital stay, risk factors for infection, signs and symptoms, laboratory findings, antibiotic treatment, and serial radiological findings.
FINDINGS: Median age was 14.8 years (IQR 5.4-24.0) for the PVL-positive patients and 70.1 years (59.2-81.4) for the others (p=0.001). Influenza-like illness had occurred during the 2 days before admission in 12 of the 16 PVL-positivepatients, but in only three of 33 PVL-negative patients (p<0.001). PVL-positive infections were more often marked by: temperature greater than 39 degrees C (p=0.01), heart rate above 140 beats per min (p=0.02), haemoptysis (p=0.005), onset of pleural effusion during hospital stay (p=0.004), and leucopenia (p=0.001). The survival rate 48 h after admission was 63% for the PVL-positive patients and 94% for PVL-negative individuals (p=0.007). Histopathological examination of lungs at necropsy from three cases of necrotising pneumonia associated with PVL-positive S aureus showed extensive necrotic ulcerations of the tracheal and bronchial mucosa and massive haemorrhagic necrosis of interalveolar septa.
INTERPRETATION: PVL-producing S aureus strains cause rapidly progressive, haemorrhagic, necrotising pneumonia, mainly in otherwise healthy children and young adults. The pneumonia is often preceded by influenza-like symptoms and has a high lethality rate.
Division of Paediatric Intensive Care, Hôpital Edouard Herriot, Lyon, France.
Relative contribution of Panton-Valentine leukocidin to PMN plasma membrane permeability and lysis caused by USA300 and USA400 culture supernatants.
Graves SF, Kobayashi SD, Braughton KR, Diep BA, Chambers HF, Otto M, Deleo FR
Microbes Infect. 2010;12(6):446.
Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a cytolytic toxin associated with severe community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections. However, the relative contribution of PVL to host cell lysis during CA-MRSA infection remains unknown. Here we investigated the relative contribution of PVL to human polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) plasma membrane permeability and lysis in vitro by using culture supernatants from wild-type and isogenic lukS/F-PV negative (Deltapvl) USA300 and USA400 strains. Using S. aureus culture conditions that favor selective high production of PVL (CCY medium), there was on average more PMN plasma membrane permeability and cell lysis caused by supernatants derived from wild-type strains compared with those from Deltapvl strains. Unexpectedly, plasma membrane permeability did not necessarily correlate with ultimate cell lysis. Moreover, the level of pore formation caused by culture supernatants varied dramatically (e.g., range was 0.32-99.09% for wild-type USA300 supernatants at 30 min) and was not attributable to differences in PMN susceptibility to PVL among human blood donors. We conclude that PMN pore formation assays utilizing S. aureus culture supernatants have limited ability to estimate the relative contribution of PVL to pathogenesis (or cytolysis in vitro or in vivo), especially when assayed using culture media that promote selective high production of PVL.
Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 903 South 4th Street, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA.