Medline ® Abstracts for References 60-63
of 'Treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in adults who require hospitalization'
Treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia with linezolid or vancomycin: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Kalil AC, Klompas M, Haynatzki G, Rupp ME
BMJ Open. 2013;3(10):e003912.
OBJECTIVE: Hospital-acquired pneumonia remains the most lethal and expensive nosocomial infection worldwide. Optimal therapy remains controversial. We aimed to compare mortality and clinical response outcomes in patients treated with either linezolid or vancomycin.
DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis.
DATA SOURCES: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, American College of Physicians Journal Club, Evidence-based Medicine BMJ and abstracts from infectious diseases and critical care meetings were searched through April 2013.
ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: All randomised clinical trials comparing linezolid to vancomycin for hospital-acquired pneumonia.
DATA EXTRACTION: Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines were followed. One author extracted the data and two authors rechecked and verified all data.
RESULTS: Nine randomised trials with a total of 4026 patients were included. The adjusted absolute mortality risk difference (RD) between linezolid and vancomycin was 0.01% (95% CI -2.1% to 2.1%; p=0.992; I(2)=13.5%. The adjusted absolute clinical response difference was 0.9% (95% CI -1.2% to 3.1%; p=0.409; I(2)=0%. The risk of both microbiological (RD=5.6%, 95% CI -2.2% to 13.3%; p=0.159; I(2)=0%) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (RD=6.4%, 95% CI -4.1% to 16.9%; p=0.230; I(2)=0%) eradication were not different between linezolid and vancomycin. Gastrointestinal side effects were more frequent with linezolid (RD=0.8% (95% CI 0% to 1.5%; p=0.05), but no differences were found with renal failure, thrombocytopenia and drug discontinuation due to adverse events. Our sample size provided 99.9% statistical power to detect differences between drugs regarding clinical response and mortality.
CONCLUSIONS: Linezolid and vancomycin have similar efficacy and safety profiles. The high statistical power and the near-zero efficacy difference between both antibiotics demonstrates that no drug is superior for the treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia.
Infectious Diseases Division, Internal Medicine Department, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, USA.
Pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Rubinstein E, Kollef MH, Nathwani D
Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46 Suppl 5:S378.
A recent increase in staphylococcal infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), combined with frequent, prolonged ventilatory support of an aging, often chronically ill population, has resulted in a large increase in cases of MRSA pneumonia in the health care setting. In addition, community-acquired MRSA pneumonia has become more prevalent. This type of pneumonia historically affects younger patients, follows infection with influenza virus, and is often severe, requiring hospitalization and causing the death of a significant proportion of those affected. Ultimately, hospital-acquired MRSA and community-acquired MRSA are important causes of pneumonia and present diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Rapid institution of appropriate antibiotic therapy, including linezolid as an alternative to vancomycin, is crucial. Respiratory infection-control measures and de-escalation of initial broad-spectrum antibiotic regimens to avoid emergence of resistant organisms are also important. This article reviews the clinical features of, diagnosis of, and therapies for MRSA pneumonia.
University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.
Severe community-acquired pneumonia due to Staphylococcus aureus, 2003-04 influenza season.
Hageman JC, Uyeki TM, Francis JS, Jernigan DB, Wheeler JG, Bridges CB, Barenkamp SJ, Sievert DM, Srinivasan A, Doherty MC, McDougal LK, Killgore GE, Lopatin UA, Coffman R, MacDonald JK, McAllister SK, Fosheim GE, Patel JB, McDonald LC
Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(6):894.
During the 2003-04 influenza season, 17 cases of Staphylococcus aureus community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) were reported from 9 states; 15 (88%) were associated with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The median age of patients was 21 years; 5 (29%) had underlying diseases, and 4 (24%) had risk factors for MRSA. Twelve (71%) had laboratory evidence of influenza virus infection. All but 1 patient, who died on arrival, were hospitalized. Death occurred in 5 (4 with MRSA). S. aureus isolates were available from 13 (76%) patients (11 MRSA). Toxin genes were detected in all isolates; 11 (85%) had only genes for Panton-Valentine leukocidin. All isolates had community-associated pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns; all MRSA isolates had the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IVa. In communities with a high prevalence of MRSA, empiric therapy of severe CAP during periods of high influenza activity should include consideration for MRSA.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA. JHageman@cdc.gov
Severe community-onset pneumonia in healthy adults caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carrying the Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes.
Francis JS, Doherty MC, Lopatin U, Johnston CP, Sinha G, Ross T, Cai M, Hansel NN, Perl T, Ticehurst JR, Carroll K, Thomas DL, Nuermberger E, Bartlett JG
Clin Infect Dis. 2005;40(1):100.
BACKGROUND: Recent worldwide reports of community-onset skin abscesses, outbreaks of furunculosis, and severe pneumonia associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carrying Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes and the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type IV indicate that MRSA infections are evolving into a community-related problem. The majority of cases reported to date involve skin and soft-tissue infections, with severe pneumonia representing a relatively rare phenomenon. During a 2-month period in the winter of 2003-2004, four healthy adults presented to 1 of 2 Baltimore hospitals with severe necrotizing MRSA pneumonia in the absence of typical risk factors for MRSA infection.
METHODS: Patients' MRSA isolates were characterized by strain typing with use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and SCCmec typing with use of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and detection of PVL genes by PCR.
RESULTS: All 4 patients' MRSA isolates carried the PVL genes and the SCCmec type IV element and belonged to the USA300 pulsed-field type. These 3 findings are among the typical characteristics of community-onset MRSA strains. In addition, 2 of our patients had concomitant influenza A diagnosed, which likely contributed to the severity of their presentation.
CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, these patients represent the first reported North American adults with severe community-onset MRSA pneumonia caused by strains carrying the PVL genes.
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org