Medline ® Abstracts for References 52-54
of 'Treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in adults who require hospitalization'
Impact of methicillin resistance on outcome of Staphylococcus aureus ventilator-associated pneumonia.
Combes A, Luyt CE, Fagon JY, Wollf M, Trouillet JL, Gibert C, Chastre J, PNEUMA Trial Group
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004;170(7):786.
The impact of methicillin resistance on morbidity and mortality of patients suffering from severe Staphylococcus aureus infections remains highly controversial. We analyzed a retrospective cohort of 97 patients with methicillin-susceptible and 74 patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Initial empiric antibiotic therapy was appropriate for every patient. Patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus VAP were older, had higher disease-severity scores, and had been on mechanical ventilation longer at onset of VAP. Factors associated with 28-day mortality retained by multivariate logistic regression analysis were: age (odds ratio [OR]= 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.08, p = 0.001) and Day 1 organ dysfunctions or infection (ODIN) score (OR = 1.90, 95% CI, 1.31-2.78, p = 0.001), but not methicillin resistance (OR = 1.72, 95% CI, 0.73-4.05, p = 0.22). The percentages of infection relapse or superinfection did not differ significantly between the two patient groups. In conclusion, after controlling for clinical and physiologic heterogeneity between groups, methicillin resistance did not significantly affect 28-day mortality of patients with Staphylococcus aureus VAP receiving appropriate antibiotics.
Service de Réanimation Médicale, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, 75651 Paris Cedex 13, France. email@example.com
Impact of an antimicrobial stewardship intervention on shortening the duration of therapy for community-acquired pneumonia.
Avdic E, Cushinotto LA, Hughes AH, Hansen AR, Efird LE, Bartlett JG, Cosgrove SE
Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Jun;54(11):1581-7. Epub 2012 Apr 10.
BACKGROUND: Initial management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has been a Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services performance measure for a decade. We hypothesized that an intervention directed at management of CAP that assesses areas not covered by the performance measures-treatment duration and antimicrobial selection after additional microbiology data are available--would further improve CAP management.
METHODS: We performed a single-center, prospective study to compare management of adult inpatients with presumed CAP before (from 1 January 2008 through 31 March 2008) and after (from 1 February 2010 through 10 May 2010) an intervention consisting of education and prospective feedback to teams regarding antibiotic choice and duration. The primary outcome measure was duration of antibiotic therapy in the 2 periods.
RESULTS: There were 62 patients in the preintervention period and 65 patients in the intervention period. The duration of antibiotic therapy decreased from a median of10 to 7 days (P<.001), with 148 fewer days of antibiotic therapy. The median lengths of stay were similar in the 2 groups (4 vs 5 days). A causative pathogen was identified less frequently during the intervention period (14% vs 34%); however, antibiotics were more frequently narrowed or modified on the basis of susceptibility results during the intervention period (67% vs 19%). Fewer patients received duplicate therapy within 24 hours in the intervention period (90% vs 55%).
CONCLUSIONS: The duration of therapy for CAP was excessive at our institution and was decreased with a stewardship intervention. Confirmatory studies at other institutions are needed; efforts to assess and reduce duration of therapy for CAP should be strongly considered.
Department of Pharmacy, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287-5425, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Promising new assays and technologies for the diagnosis and management of infectious diseases.
Mitsuma SF, Mansour MK, Dekker JP, Kim J, Rahman MZ, Tweed-Kent A, Schuetz P
Clin Infect Dis. 2013;56(7):996. Epub 2012 Dec 7.
In the first decade of the 21st century, we have seen the completion of the human genome project and marked progress in the human microbiome project. The vast amount of data generated from these efforts combined with advances in molecular and biomedical technologies have led to the development of a multitude of assays and technologies that may be useful in the diagnosis and management of infectious diseases. Here, we identify several new assays and technologies that have recently come into clinical use or have potential for clinical use in the near future. The scope of this review is broad and includes topics such as the serum marker procalcitonin, gene expression profiling, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and nucleic acid aptamers. Principles that underlie each assay or technology, their clinical applications, and potential strengths and limitations are addressed.
Divisions of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.