Medline ® Abstracts for References 52-54
of 'Treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in adults who require hospitalization'
Addition of a macrolide to a beta-lactam-based empirical antibiotic regimen is associated with lower in-hospital mortality for patients with bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia.
Martínez JA, Horcajada JP, Almela M, Marco F, Soriano A, García E, Marco MA, Torres A, Mensa J
Clin Infect Dis. 2003;36(4):389.
To assess the association between inclusion of a macrolide in a beta-lactam-based empirical antibiotic regimen and mortality among patients with bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia, 10 years of data from a database were analyzed. The total available set of putative prognostic factors was subjected to stepwise logistic regression, with in-hospital death as the dependent variable. Of the 409 patients analyzed, 238 (58%) received a beta-lactam plus a macrolide and 171 (42%) received a beta-lactam without a macrolide. Multivariate analysis revealed 4 variables to be independently associated with death: shock (P<.0001), age of>or=65 years (P=.02), infections with pathogens that have resistance to both penicillin and erythromycin (P=.04), and no inclusion of a macrolide in the initial antibiotic regimen (P=.03). For patients with bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia, not adding a macrolide to a beta-lactam-based initial antibiotic regimen is an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality. However, only a randomized study can definitively determine whether this association is due to a real effect of macrolides.
Institut Clínic Infeccions i Immunologia, Hospital Clinic Universitari, Barcelona, Spain. email@example.com
Antibiotics for bacteremic pneumonia: Improved outcomes with macrolides but not fluoroquinolones.
Metersky ML, Ma A, Houck PM, Bratzler DW
BACKGROUND: The questions of whether the use of antibiotics that are active against atypical organisms is beneficial in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and of the potential mechanisms of any beneficial effects remain unresolved. Proposed mechanisms include activity against atypical organisms vs the immunomodulatory effects of these antibiotics. The study of outcomes of a large cohort of patients with bacteremic pneumonia provides a unique opportunity to address these questions by excluding patients with primary atypical infection.
METHODS: We reviewed data from the charts of 2,209 Medicare patients who were admitted to hospitals across the United States from either home or a nursing facility with bacteremic pneumonia between 1998 and 2001. Patients were stratified according to the type of antibiotic treatment. Multivariate modeling was performed to assess the relationship between the class of antibiotic used and several outcome variables.
RESULTS: The initial use of any antibiotic active against atypical organisms was independently associated with a decreased risk of 30-day mortality (odds ratio [OR], 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59 to 0.98; p = 0.03) and hospital admission within 30 days of discharge (OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.89; p = 0.02). Further analysis revealed that the benefits of atypical treatment were associated with the use of macrolides, but not the use of fluoroquinolones or tetracyclines, with macrolides conferring lower risks of in-hospital mortality (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.88; p = 0.01), 30-day mortality (OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.87; p = 0.007), and hospital readmission within 30 days of discharge (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.85; p = 0.004).
CONCLUSIONS: Initial antibiotic treatment including a macrolide agent is associated with improved outcomes in Medicare patients hospitalized with bacteremic pneumonia. These results have implications regarding the mechanism by which the use of a macrolide for treatment of pneumonia is associated with improved outcomes.
Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, 263 Farmington Ave, Farmington, CT 06030-1321, USA. Metersky@nso.uchc.edu
Impact of macrolide therapy on mortality for patients with severe sepsis due to pneumonia.
Restrepo MI, Mortensen EM, Waterer GW, Wunderink RG, Coalson JJ, Anzueto A
Eur Respir J. 2009;33(1):153.
Recent studies suggest that macrolides may have beneficial effects for patients at risk for certain infections. The current authors examined the effect of macrolide therapy on 30- and 90-day mortality for patients with severe sepsis caused by pneumonia. A retrospective cohort study was conducted at two tertiary teaching hospitals. Eligible subjects were admitted with a diagnosis of, had chest radiography consistent with, and had a discharge diagnosis of pneumonia and clinical criteria of severe sepsis. Subjects were considered to be on macrolides if they received at least one dose within 48 h of admission. Severe sepsis was present in 237 (30.1%) subjects, out of whom 104 (43.9%) received macrolides. Mortality was 20.3% at 30 days and 24.5% at 90 days. In the multivariable analysis, the use of macrolide was associated with decreased mortality at 30 days (hazard ratio (HR) 0.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.2-0.7) and at 90 days (HR 0.3, 95% CI 0.2-0.6) in patients with severe sepsis and in patients with macrolide-resistant pathogens (HR 0.1, 95% CI 0.02-0.5). Macrolide use was associated with decreased mortality in patients with severe sepsis due to pneumonia and macrolide-resistant pathogens. Confirmatory studies are needed to determine whether macrolide therapy may be protective for patients with sepsis.
Veterans Evidence-Based Research Dissemination Implementation Center, Audie L. Murphy Veterans Affairs Hospital, San Antonio, TX, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org