Official reprint from UpToDate®
www.uptodate.com ©2017 UpToDate®

Medline ® Abstract for Reference 47

of 'Treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in adults who require hospitalization'

Oral gemifloxacin versus sequential therapy with intravenous ceftriaxone/oral cefuroxime with or without a macrolide in the treatment of patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia: a randomized, open-label, multicenter study of clinical efficacy and tolerability.
Lode H, File TM Jr, Mandell L, Ball P, Pypstra R, Thomas M, 185 Gemifloxacin Study Group
Clin Ther. 2002;24(11):1915.
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of oral gemifloxacin, an enhanced-affinity quinolone, with sequential therapy with IV ceftriaxone followed by oral cefuroxime (with or without a macrolide) in patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).
METHODS: A randomized, open-label, multicenter study comprised adults hospitalized with a clinical and radiologic diagnosis of CAP. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive either (1) oral gemifloxacin 320 mg once daily (7-14 days); or (2) IV ceftriaxone 2 g once daily (1-7 days) followed by oral cefuroxime 500 mg twice daily (1-13 days) for a total of<or = 14 days. Patients receiving ceftriaxone/cefuroxime were allowed concomitant macrolide treatment.
RESULTS: A total of 345 patients were randomized, of whom 341 received at least 1 dose of study medication (gemifloxacin, 169/172; ceftriaxone/cefuroxime, 172/173). Clinical success rates in the clinically evaluable (CE) population at follow-up (day 21-28 post-therapy), the primary end point, were 92.2% (107/116) for gemifloxacin and 93.4% (113/121) for ceftriaxone/cefuroxime (treatment difference, -1.15; 95% CI, -7.73 to 5.43). In patients in Fine risk classes IV and V, the clinical success rate was 87.0% (20/23) for gemifloxacin versus 83.3% (20/24) for ceftriaxone/cefuroxime. No difference in clinical response at follow-up was noted based on macrolide use. Bacteriologic success rates at follow-up in the bacteriologically evaluable (BE) population were 90.6% (58/64) for gemifloxacin and 87.3% (55/63) for ceftriaxone/cefuroxime (treatment difference 3.32; 95% CI, -7.57 to 14.21). The clinical success rate in bacteremic patients at follow-up (BE population) was 100.0%. Both treatments were generally well tolerated. The frequency and types of adverse events were similar between the 2 groups. The most common treatment-related adverse events with gemifloxacin were diarrhea, liver-function adverse events, and rash; with ceftriaxone/cefuroxime, they were diarrhea, elevated hepatic-enzyme activity, and moniliasis.
CONCLUSION: The clinical efficacy and tolerability of oral gemifloxacin 320 mg once daily were similar to those of IV ceftriaxone followed by oral cefuroxime (with or without a macrolide) in the treatment of adult patients hospitalized with moderate to severe CAP. Both treatments were effective in bacteremic patients and those at increased risk of mortality.
Department of Chest and Infectious Diseases, Hospital Heckeshorn, Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus, Free University Berlin, Berlin, Germany. haloheck@zedat.fu-berlin.de