Medline ® Abstracts for References 45,46
of 'Treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in adults who require hospitalization'
Effectiveness of early switch from intravenous to oral antibiotics in severe community acquired pneumonia: multicentre randomised trial.
Oosterheert JJ, Bonten MJ, Schneider MM, Buskens E, Lammers JW, Hustinx WM, Kramer MH, Prins JM, Slee PH, Kaasjager K, Hoepelman AI
BMJ. 2006;333(7580):1193. Epub 2006 Nov 7.
OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness of an early switch to oral antibiotics with the standard 7 day course of intravenous antibiotics in severe community acquired pneumonia.
DESIGN: Multicentre randomised controlled trial.
SETTING: Five teaching hospitals and 2 university medical centres in the Netherlands.
PARTICIPANTS: 302 patients in non-intensive care wards with severe community acquired pneumonia. 265 patients fulfilled the study requirements.
INTERVENTION: Three days of treatment with intravenous antibiotics followed, when clinically stable, by oral antibiotics or by 7 days of intravenous antibiotics.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical cure and length of hospital stay.
RESULTS: 302 patients were randomised (mean age 69.5 (standard deviation 14.0), mean pneumonia severity score 112.7 (26.0)). 37 patients were excluded from analysis because of early dropout before day 3, leaving 265 patients for intention to treat analysis. Mortality at day 28 was 4% in the intervention group and 6% in the control group (mean difference 2%, 95% confidence interval -3% to 8%). Clinical cure was 83% in the intervention group and 85% in the control group (2%, -7% to 10%). Duration of intravenous treatment and length of hospital stay were reduced in the intervention group, with mean differences of 3.4 days (3.6 (1.5) v 7.0 (2.0) days; 2.8 to 3.9) and 1.9 days (9.6 (5.0) v 11.5 (4.9) days; 0.6 to 3.2), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Early switch from intravenous to oral antibiotics in patients with severe community acquired pneumonia is safe and decreases length of hospital stay by 2 days.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials NCT00273676 [ClinicalTrials.gov].
Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, University Medical Centre, PO Box 85500, 3508 GA Utrecht, Netherlands.
Effect of a 3-step critical pathway to reduce duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy and length of stay in community-acquired pneumonia: a randomized controlled trial.
CarratalàJ, Garcia-Vidal C, Ortega L, Fernández-SabéN, Clemente M, Albero G, López M, CastellsaguéX, Dorca J, Verdaguer R, Martínez-Montauti J, Manresa F, Gudiol F
Arch Intern Med. 2012;172(12):922.
BACKGROUND: The length of hospital stay (LOS) for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) varies considerably, even though this factor has a major impact on the cost of care. We aimed to determine whether the use of a 3-step critical pathway is safe and effective in reducing duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy and length of stay in hospitalized patients with CAP.
METHODS: We randomly assigned 401 adults who required hospitalization for CAP to follow a 3-step critical pathway including early mobilization and use of objective criteria for switching to oral antibiotic therapy and for deciding on hospital discharge or usual care. The primary end point was LOS. Secondary end points were the duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy, adverse drug reactions, need for readmission, overall case-fatality rate, and patients' satisfaction.
RESULTS: Median LOS was 3.9 days in the 3-step group and 6.0 days in the usual care group (difference, -2.1 days; 95% CI, -2.7 to -1.7; P<.001). Median duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy was 2.0 days in the 3-step group and 4.0 days in the usual care group (difference, -2.0 days; 95% CI, -2.0 to -1.0; P<.001). More patients assigned to usual care experienced adverse drug reactions (4.5% vs 15.9% [difference, -11.4 percentage points; 95% CI, -17.2 to -5.6 percentage points; P<.001]). No significant differences were observed regarding subsequent readmissions, case fatality rate, and patients' satisfaction with care.
CONCLUSIONS: The use of a 3-step critical pathway was safe and effective in reducing the duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy and LOS for CAP and did not adversely affect patient outcomes. Such a strategy will help optimize the process of care of hospitalized patients with CAP, and hospital costs would be reduced.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN17875607.
Infectious Disease Service, Bellvitge Institute for Biomedical Research (IDIBELL)-Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, University of Barcelona, L'Hospitalet, Barcelona, Spain. email@example.com