Medline ® Abstracts for References 2,77,78
of 'Treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in adults who require hospitalization'
Epidemiology and predictors of multidrug-resistant community-acquired and health care-associated pneumonia.
Gross AE, Van Schooneveld TC, Olsen KM, Rupp ME, Bui TH, Forsung E, Kalil AC
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014 Sep;58(9):5262-8. Epub 2014 Jun 23.
There are limited U.S. data describing the risk factors for multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) isolation in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and health care-associated pneumonia (HCAP). However, concern for the presence of these pathogens drives the prescribing of empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics for CAP and HCAP. A retrospective study of all adults hospitalized with community-onset pneumonia (CAP and HCAP) at a large U.S. medical center from January 2010 to December 2011 was conducted. The objective was to ascertain the rate of pneumonia caused by MDROs and to evaluate whether HCAP is a risk factor for MDRO pneumonia. Univariate and propensity score-adjusted multivariate analyses were performed. A total of 521 patients (50.5% CAP and 49.5% HCAP) were included. The most common etiologies of pneumonia were primary viral and Streptococcus pneumoniae. MDROs were isolated in 20 (3.8%) patients overall, and MDROs occurred in 5.9% and 1.9% of HCAP and CAP patients, respectively. The presence of an MDRO was not associated with HCAP classification (odds ratio [OR]=1.95; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.66 to 5.80; P=0.23) or with most of its individual components (hemodialysis, home infusion, home wound care, and≥48-h hospitalization in the last 90 days). Independent predictors of MDRO included the following: Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization/infection in the previous year (OR=7.43; 95% CI, 2.24 to 24.61; P<0.001), antimicrobial use in the previous 90 days (OR=2.90; 95% CI, 1.13 to 7.45; P=0.027), admission from a nursing home (OR=4.19; 95% CI, 1.55 to 11.31; P=0.005), and duration of hospitalization in the previous 90 or 180 days (P=0.013 and P=0.002, respectively). MDROs were uncommon in HCAP and CAP. HCAP did not predict MDRO isolation. Local etiology of community onset pneumonia and specific MDRO risk factors should be integrated into therapeutic decisions to prevent empirical overprescribing of antibiotics for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and P. aeruginosa.
University of Illinois at Chicago, College of Pharmacy, Chicago, Illinois, USA University of Illinois Hospital and Health Sciences System, Chicago, Illinois, USA University of Nebraska Medical Center, College of Pharmacy, Omaha, Nebraska, USA University of Nebraska Medical Center, College of Medicine, Omaha, Nebraska, USA email@example.com.
Antibiotic timing and diagnostic uncertainty in Medicare patients with pneumonia: is it reasonable to expect all patients to receive antibiotics within 4 hours?
Metersky ML, Sweeney TA, Getzow MB, Siddiqui F, Nsa W, Bratzler DW
BACKGROUND: Many organizations, including the Centers for Medicare&Medicaid Services, measure the percentage of patients hospitalized with pneumonia who receive antibiotics within 4 h of presentation. Because the diagnosis of pneumonia can be delayed in patients with an atypical presentation, there are concerns that attempts to achieve a performance target of 100% may encourage inappropriate antibiotic usage and the diversion of limited resources from seriously ill patients. This study was performed to determine how frequently Medicare patients with a hospital discharge diagnosis of pneumonia present in a manner that could potentially lead to diagnostic uncertainty and a resulting appropriate delay in antibiotic administration.
METHODS: Randomly selected charts of hospitalized Medicare patients who have received diagnoses of pneumonia were reviewed independently by three reviewers to determine whether there was a potential reason for a delay of antibiotic administration other than quality of care. Antibiotic administration timing, patient demographic, and clinical characteristics were also abstracted.
RESULTS: Nineteen of 86 patients (22%; 95% confidence interval, 13.7 to 32.2) presented in a manner that had the potential to result in delayed antibiotic treatment due to diagnostic uncertainty. Diagnostic uncertainty was significantly associated with the lack of rales, normal pulse oximetry findings, and lack of an infiltrate seen on the chest radiograph. There was a nonsignificant trend toward a longer time until antibiotic treatment in patients with diagnostic uncertainty.
CONCLUSIONS: Many Medicare patients in whom pneumonia has been diagnosed present in an atypical manner. Delivering antibiotic treatment within 4 h for all patients would necessitate the treatment of many patients before a firm diagnosis can be made.
Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT, USA. Metersky@nso.uchc.edu
Antibiotic timing and errors in diagnosing pneumonia.
Welker JA, Huston M, McCue JD
Arch Intern Med. 2008;168(4):351.
BACKGROUND: The percentage of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) whose time to first antibiotic dose (TFAD) is less than 4 hours of presentation to the emergency department (ED) has been made a core quality measure, and public reporting has been instituted. We asked whether these time pressures might also have negative effects on the accuracy of diagnosis of pneumonia.
METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of adult admissions for CAP for 2 periods: group 1, when the core quality measure was a TFAD of less than 8 hours; and group 2, when the TFAD was lowered to less than 4 hours. We examined the accuracy of diagnosis of CAP by ED physicians.
RESULTS: A total of 548 patients diagnosed as having CAP were studied (255 in group 1 and 293 in group 2). At admission, group 2 patients were 39.0% less likely to meet predefined diagnostic criteria for CAP than were group 1 patients (odds ratio, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.42-0.86) (P = .004). At discharge, there was agreement between the ED physician's diagnosis and the predefined criteria for CAP in 62.0% of group 1 and 53.9% of group 2 patients (P = .06) and between the ED physician's admitting diagnosis and that of the discharging physician in 74.5% of group 1 and 66.9% of group 2 patients (P = .05). The mean (SD) TFAD was similar in group 1 (167.0 [118.6]minutes) and group 2 (157.8 [96.3]minutes).
CONCLUSION: Reduction in the required TFAD from 8 to 4 hours seems to reduce the accuracy by which ED physicians diagnose pneumonia, while failing to reduce the actual TFAD achieved for patients.
Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, and Franklin Square Clinical Research Center, Franklin Square Hospital Center, Baltimore, MD 21237, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org