Medline ® Abstracts for References 2,77,78
of 'Treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in adults who require hospitalization'
Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults.
Mandell LA, Wunderink RG, Anzueto A, Bartlett JG, Campbell GD, Dean NC, Dowell SF, File TM Jr, Musher DM, Niederman MS, Torres A, Whitney CG, Infectious Diseases Society of America, American Thoracic Society
Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44 Suppl 2:S27.
McMaster University Medical School, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. firstname.lastname@example.org
Radiographic resolution of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia in the elderly.
El Solh AA, Aquilina AT, Gunen H, Ramadan F
J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004;52(2):224.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the radiographic clearance of proven community-acquired nontuberculous bacterial pneumonia in nonimmunocompromised older patients to provide working estimates of the rate of radiographic resolution as a function of the patient cumulative comorbidities, extent of initial radiographic involvement, functional status, and causative pathogens.
DESIGN: A prospective study.
PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-four patients aged 70 and older, consecutively admitted to a hospital for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia.
SETTING: A university-affiliated teaching hospital.
MEASUREMENTS: Chest radiographs were performed every 3 weeks from the date of admission for a total period of 12 weeks or until all radiographic abnormalities had resolved or returned to baseline.
RESULTS: Sixty-four patients (86%) completed the study. The rate of radiographic clearance was estimated at 35.1% within 3 weeks, 60.2% within 6 weeks, and 84.2% within 12 weeks. Radiographic resolution was significantly slower for those with high comorbidity index, bacteremia, multilobar involvement, and enteric gram-negative bacilli pneumonias. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that the comorbidity index (relative risk for clearance=0.67 per class index, P<.001) and multilobar disease (relative risk for clearance=0.24 for more than one lobe, P<.001) had independent predictive value (Cox proportional hazards regression model) on the rate of resolution.
CONCLUSION: The radiographic resolution of nontuberculous bacterial pneumonia in the elderly should take into account the extent of lobar disease and the burden of underlying illnesses. A waiting period of 12 to 14 weeks is recommended for slowly resolving pneumonia to be considered nonresolving.
Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, University at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Buffalo, New York, USA. email@example.com
Epidemiology of community-acquired pneumonia in adults: a population-based study.
Almirall J, Bolíbar I, Vidal J, Sauca G, Coll P, Niklasson B, BartoloméM, BalanzóX
Eur Respir J. 2000;15(4):757.
In this prospective study, the authors assessed the incidence, aetiology, and outcome of patients with community-acquired pneumonia in the general population. From December 1993 to November 1995, a study was performed in a mixed residential-industrial urban population of the "Maresme" region in Barcelona, Spain. All subjects>or =14 yrs of age (annual average population size 74,368 inhabitants) with clinically suspected community-acquired pneumonia were registered. All cases were re-evaluated by chest radiographs on the 5th day of illness and at monthly intervals until complete recovery. Urine and blood samples were obtained for culture and antigen detection. When lower respiratory tract secretions were obtained, these were also cultured. There were 241 patients with community-acquired pneumonia, with an annual incidence rate of 1.62 cases (95% confidence interval, 1.42-1.82) per 1,000 inhabitants. Incidence rates increased by age groups and were higher in males than in females. Of 232 patients with aetiological data, 104 had an identifiable aetiology. A total of 114 pathogens were found (single pathogen 94, two pathogens 10). There were 81 episodes of bacterial infection and 33 of viral infection. The most common pathogens were Streptococcus pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and influenza A and B viruses. No case of Hantavirus infection was found. The rate of hospital admission was 61.4% with a mean+/-SD length of 11.7+/-10.1 days, a mean period of 23.0+/-14.3 days inactivity, and an overall mortality rate of 5%. The high rate of hospital admission, prolonged stay in hospital, and long period of inactivity all continue to constitute a social and health care burden of community-acquired pneumonia.
Critical Care Unit, Hospital de Mataró, Barcelona, Spain.