Medline ® Abstracts for References 2,77,78
of 'Treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in adults who require hospitalization'
Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults.
Mandell LA, Wunderink RG, Anzueto A, Bartlett JG, Campbell GD, Dean NC, Dowell SF, File TM Jr, Musher DM, Niederman MS, Torres A, Whitney CG, Infectious Diseases Society of America, American Thoracic Society
Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44 Suppl 2:S27.
McMaster University Medical School, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. firstname.lastname@example.org
Patterns of resolution of chest radiograph abnormalities in adults hospitalized with severe community-acquired pneumonia.
Bruns AH, Oosterheert JJ, Prokop M, Lammers JW, Hak E, Hoepelman AI
Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45(8):983.
BACKGROUND: Timing of follow-up chest radiographs for patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is difficult, because little is known about the time to resolution of chest radiograph abnormalities and its correlation with clinical findings. To provide recommendations for short-term, in-hospital chest radiograph follow-up, we studied the rate of resolution of chest radiograph abnormalities in relation to clinical cure, evaluated predictors for delayed resolution, and determined the influence of deterioration of radiographic findings during follow-up on prognosis.
METHODS: A total of 288 patients who were hospitalized because of severe CAP were followed up for 28 days in a prospective multicenter study. Clinical data and scores for clinical improvement at day 7 and clinical cure at day 28 were obtained. Chest radiographs were obtained at hospital admission and at days 7 and 28. Resolution and deterioration of chest radiograph findings were determined.
RESULTS: At day 7, 57 (25%) of the patients had resolution of chest radiographabnormalities, whereas 127 (56%) had clinical improvement (mean difference, 31%; 95% confidence interval, 25%-37%). At day 28, 103 (53%) of the patients had resolution of chest radiograph abnormalities, and 152 (78%) had clinical cure (mean difference, 25%; 95% confidence interval, 19%-31%). Delayed resolution of radiograph abnormalities was independently associated with multilobar disease (odds ratio, 2.87; P<or = .01); dullness to percussion at physical examination (odds ratio, 6.94; P<or = .01); high C-reactive protein level, defined as>200 mg/L (odds ratio, 4.24; P<or = .001); and high respiratory rate at admission, defined as>25 breaths/min (odds ratio, 2.42; P<or = .03). There were no significant differences in outcome at day 28 between patients with and patients without deterioration of chest radiograph findings during the follow-up period (P>.09).
CONCLUSIONS: Routine short-term follow-up chest radiographs (obtained<28 days after hospital admission) of hospitalized patients with severe CAP seem to provide no additional clinical value.
Division of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Radiographic resolution of community-acquired pneumonia.
Mittl RL Jr, Schwab RJ, Duchin JS, Goin JE, Albeida SM, Miller WT
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1994;149(3 Pt 1):630.
Clinicians are frequently faced with patients in whom the radiographic resolution of community-acquired pneumonia seems delayed. Previous studies of radiographic resolution of the disease have yielded conflicting results. We prospectively assessed the radiographic resolution of pneumonia in 81 non-immuno-compromised patients, presenting to the emergency room and ambulatory clinics of a large university hospital, who met clinical and radiographic criteria for pneumonia. Serial chest radiographs were obtained every 2 wk for an initial period of 8 wk, and then every 4 wk until 24 wk had passed, or until all radiographic abnormalities had cleared. Forty-one of the 81 patients (50.6%) demonstrated complete clearance after 2 wk. Fifty of the 75 patients (66.7%) followed to 4 wk demonstrated complete clearance. The rate of clearance was inversely correlated with age (p<0.001) and involvement of single versus multiple lobes (p<0.0001) (log-rank test). Clearance was faster in those patients treated as outpatients (3.8 wk versus 9.1 wk, p = 0.03) and in patients who were nonsmokers (4.5 wk versus 8.4 wk, p = 0.05) (log-rank test). Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that only age (relative risk for clearance, +0.79 per decade) and single versus multiple lobes involved (relative risk for clearance, 0.55 for more than one lobe) had independent predictive value (Cox proportional hazards regression model).The radiographic resolution of pneumonia occurs more rapidly in younger patients and in those with only a single lobe involved.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia.