Medline ® Abstracts for References 2,77,78
of 'Treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in adults who require hospitalization'
Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults.
Mandell LA, Wunderink RG, Anzueto A, Bartlett JG, Campbell GD, Dean NC, Dowell SF, File TM Jr, Musher DM, Niederman MS, Torres A, Whitney CG, Infectious Diseases Society of America, American Thoracic Society
Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44 Suppl 2:S27.
McMaster University Medical School, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. email@example.com
Causes and risk factors for rehospitalization of patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia.
Jasti H, Mortensen EM, Obrosky DS, Kapoor WN, Fine MJ
Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46(4):550.
BACKGROUND: Rehospitalization after inpatient treatment of community-acquired pneumonia occurs in one-tenth of all hospitalizations, but the clinical circumstances surrounding readmission to the hospital have not been well studied. The objective of this study was to identify the causes and risk factors for rehospitalization of inpatients with community-acquired pneumonia.
METHODS: This project was performed as part of a randomized, multicenter, controlled trial of the implementation of practice guidelines to reduce the duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy and duration of hospitalization for patients who have received a clinical and radiographic diagnosis of pneumonia. The trial was conducted at 7 hospitals in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, from February 1998 through March 1999. The primary outcome for these analyses was rehospitalization within 30 days after the index hospitalization. Two physicians independently assigned the cause of rehospitalization as pneumonia related, comorbidity related, or both; consensus was reached for all assignments. Patient demographic characteristics and clinical factors independently associated with rehospitalization were identified using multiple logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS: Of the 577 patients discharged after hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia, 70 (12%) were rehospitalized within 30 days. The median time to rehospitalization was 8 days (interquartile range, 4-13 days). Overall, 52 rehospitalizations (74%) were comorbidity related, and 14 (20%) were pneumonia related. The most frequent comorbid conditions responsible for rehospitalization were cardiovascular (n = 19), pulmonary (n = 6) and neurological (n = 6) in origin. Less than a high school education (odds ratio, 2.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-3.4), unemployment (odds ratio, 3.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-12.3), coronary artery disease (odds ratio, 2.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-4.7), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (odds ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-4.1) were independently associated with rehospitalization.
CONCLUSIONS: The majority of rehospitalizations following pneumonia are comorbidity related and are the result of underlying cardiopulmonary and/or neurologic diseases. Careful attention to the clinical stability of patients with these coexisting conditions at and following hospital discharge may decrease the frequency of rehospitalization of patients with community-acquired pneumonia.
Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine, Center for Research on Health Care, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.
Predictors of short-term rehospitalization following discharge of patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia.
Capelastegui A, España Yandiola PP, Quintana JM, Bilbao A, Diez R, Pascual S, Pulido E, Egurrola M
Chest. 2009;136(4):1079. Epub 2009 Apr 24.
BACKGROUND: Among patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), the risk factors for short-term hospital readmission after discharge are unknown.
METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study of 1,117 patients who had been discharged alive after hospitalization for CAP. We collected variables associated with CAP severity at hospital admission, in-hospital clinical evolution, clinical instability factors on hospital discharge, therapy employed during hospitalization, and diagnostic bacteriology. We assessed hospital readmission within 30 days after discharge for the index hospitalization. Risk factors independently associated with 30-day hospital readmission were identified using Cox regression models.
RESULTS: Of the 81 patients (7.3%) who were readmitted to the hospital within 30 days, 29 (35.8%) were rehospitalized for pneumonia-related causes. Variables associated with pneumonia-relatedhospital readmission were treatment failure (hazard ratio [HR], 2.9; 95% CI, 1.2 to 6.8), and one or more instability factors on hospital discharge (HR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.3 to 6.2). The predictive performance of these variables measured by the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic was 0.65. Variables associated with pneumonia-unrelated hospital readmission were age>or= 65 years (HR, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.4 to 14.7), Charlson comorbidity index>or= 2 (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.0 to 3.4), and decompensated comorbidities during in-hospital evolution (HR, 3.5; 95% CI, 2.0 to 6.3); the AUC for this model was 0.77. Patients with at least two risk factors were at significantly increased risk of 30-day hospital readmission (pneumonia-related CAP: HR, 9.0; 95% CI, 3.2 to 25.3; pneumonia-unrelated CAP: HR, 5.3; 95% CI, 1.6 to 18.1).
CONCLUSIONS: Among patients hospitalized for CAP, different risk factors are associated with hospital readmission related to pneumonia or to other causes. The identification of two different groups of patients who were at high risk of hospital readmission raises the possibility that different management strategies could decrease the rate of hospital readmissions.
Pneumology Service, Hospital Galdakao-Usansolo-Centro de Investigacíon Biomedica en Red Epidemiologíy Salud Pública, Galdakao, Bizkaia, Spain. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.