Medline ® Abstracts for References 2,76,81

of 'Treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in adults who require hospitalization'

2
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Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults.
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Mandell LA, Wunderink RG, Anzueto A, Bartlett JG, Campbell GD, Dean NC, Dowell SF, File TM Jr, Musher DM, Niederman MS, Torres A, Whitney CG, Infectious Diseases Society of America, American Thoracic Society
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Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44 Suppl 2:S27.
 
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McMaster University Medical School, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. lmandell@mcmaster.ca
PMID
76
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Effect of a 3-step critical pathway to reduce duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy and length of stay in community-acquired pneumonia: a randomized controlled trial.
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CarratalàJ, Garcia-Vidal C, Ortega L, Fernández-SabéN, Clemente M, Albero G, López M, CastellsaguéX, Dorca J, Verdaguer R, Martínez-Montauti J, Manresa F, Gudiol F
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Arch Intern Med. 2012;172(12):922.
 
BACKGROUND: The length of hospital stay (LOS) for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) varies considerably, even though this factor has a major impact on the cost of care. We aimed to determine whether the use of a 3-step critical pathway is safe and effective in reducing duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy and length of stay in hospitalized patients with CAP.
METHODS: We randomly assigned 401 adults who required hospitalization for CAP to follow a 3-step critical pathway including early mobilization and use of objective criteria for switching to oral antibiotic therapy and for deciding on hospital discharge or usual care. The primary end point was LOS. Secondary end points were the duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy, adverse drug reactions, need for readmission, overall case-fatality rate, and patients' satisfaction.
RESULTS: Median LOS was 3.9 days in the 3-step group and 6.0 days in the usual care group (difference, -2.1 days; 95% CI, -2.7 to -1.7; P<.001). Median duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy was 2.0 days in the 3-step group and 4.0 days in the usual care group (difference, -2.0 days; 95% CI, -2.0 to -1.0; P<.001). More patients assigned to usual care experienced adverse drug reactions (4.5% vs 15.9% [difference, -11.4 percentage points; 95% CI, -17.2 to -5.6 percentage points; P<.001]). No significant differences were observed regarding subsequent readmissions, case fatality rate, and patients' satisfaction with care.
CONCLUSIONS: The use of a 3-step critical pathway was safe and effective in reducing the duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy and LOS for CAP and did not adversely affect patient outcomes. Such a strategy will help optimize the process of care of hospitalized patients with CAP, and hospital costs would be reduced.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN17875607.
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Infectious Disease Service, Bellvitge Institute for Biomedical Research (IDIBELL)-Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, University of Barcelona, L'Hospitalet, Barcelona, Spain. jcarratala@ub.edu
PMID
81
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Efficacy of short-course antibiotic regimens for community-acquired pneumonia: a meta-analysis.
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Li JZ, Winston LG, Moore DH, Bent S
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Am J Med. 2007;120(9):783.
 
PURPOSE: There is little consensus on the most appropriate duration of antibiotic treatment for community-acquired pneumonia. The goal of this study is to systematically review randomized controlled trials comparing short-course and extended-course antibiotic regimens for community-acquired pneumonia.
METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and CENTRAL, and reviewed reference lists from 1980 through June 2006. Studies were included if they were randomized controlled trials that compared short-course (7 days or less) versus extended-course (>7 days) antibiotic monotherapy for community-acquired pneumonia in adults. The primary outcome measure was failure to achieve clinical improvement.
RESULTS: We found 15 randomized controlled trials matching our inclusion and exclusion criteria comprising 2796 total subjects. Short-course regimens primarily studied the use of azithromycin (n=10), but trials examining beta-lactams (n=2), fluoroquinolones (n=2), and ketolides (n=1) were found as well. Of the extended-course regimens, 3 studies utilized the same antibiotic, whereas 9 involved an antibiotic of the same class. Overall, there was no difference in the risk of clinical failure between the short-course and extended-course regimens (0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78-1.02). In addition, there were no differences in the risk of mortality (0.81, 95% CI, 0.46-1.43) or bacteriologic eradication (1.11, 95% CI, 0.76-1.62). In subgroup analyses, there was a trend toward favorable clinical efficacy for the short-course regimens in all antibiotic classes (range of relative risk, 0.88-0.94).
CONCLUSIONS: The available studies suggest that adults with mild to moderate community-acquired pneumonia can be safely and effectively treated with an antibiotic regimen of 7 days or less. Reduction in patient exposure to antibiotics may limit the increasing rates of antimicrobial drug resistance, decrease cost, and improve patient adherence and tolerability.
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Department of Medicine, San Francisco VA Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143-0862, USA. jli22@partners.org
PMID