Medline ® Abstracts for References 2,76,81
of 'Treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in adults who require hospitalization'
Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults.
Mandell LA, Wunderink RG, Anzueto A, Bartlett JG, Campbell GD, Dean NC, Dowell SF, File TM Jr, Musher DM, Niederman MS, Torres A, Whitney CG, Infectious Diseases Society of America, American Thoracic Society
Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44 Suppl 2:S27.
McMaster University Medical School, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. firstname.lastname@example.org
Early administration of the first antimicrobials should be considered a marker of optimal care of patients with community-acquired pneumonia rather than a predictor of outcomes.
Bordon J, Aliberti S, Duvvuri P, Wiemken T, Peyrani P, Natividad I, Caceres-Lara A, Delapenha R, Blasi F, Ramirez J
Int J Infect Dis. 2013 May;17(5):e293-8. Epub 2013 Mar 16.
BACKGROUND: The effect of time of the first antimicrobial dose (TFAD) on the outcomes of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a controversy.
METHODS: This was an observational, retrospective study of consecutive adult patients hospitalized with CAP. TFAD was defined as the time in hours from arrival at the emergency department to the intravenous infusion of antimicrobial. All patients received appropriate antibiotic therapy according to available Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society guidelines during the time of our study. Multivariable analysis and a propensity score adjusted methodology were used to measure the association of TFAD with mortality, time to clinical stability (TCS), and length of stay in the hospital (LOS).
RESULTS: Data of 372 patients with CAP were studied. A total 29 (8.4%) patients died within 30 days of hospitalization. Our propensity-adjusted logistic regression model did not show a significant association between TFAD and mortality (p=0.148). Patients who died received antimicrobials significantly earlier than survivors: 5.7h vs. 7.5h, respectively (p=0.04). The LOS and TCS were not significantly affected by the TFAD; the LOS hazard ratio was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.97-1.02; p=0.774) and the TCS hazard ratio was 1.01 (95% confidence interval 0.98-1.03; p=0.604).
CONCLUSIONS: TFAD does not seem to be associated with the clinical outcome of patients with CAP. Early TFAD should be considered as an important marker of optimal care of patients with CAP rather than as a factor predicting outcomes.
Department of Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, Providence Hospital, Washington, DC, USA. email@example.com
Processes and outcomes of care for patients with community-acquired pneumonia: results from the Pneumonia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT) cohort study.
Fine MJ, Stone RA, Singer DE, Coley CM, Marrie TJ, Lave JR, Hough LJ, Obrosky DS, Schulz R, Ricci EM, Rogers JC, Kapoor WN
Arch Intern Med. 1999;159(9):970.
BACKGROUND: Although understanding the processes of care and medical outcomes for patients with community-acquired pneumonia is instrumental to improving the quality and cost-effectiveness of care for this illness, limited information is available on how physicians manage patients with this illness or on medical outcomes other than short-term mortality.
OBJECTIVES: To describe the processes of care and to assess a broad range of medical outcomes for ambulatory and hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia.
METHODS: This prospective, observational study was conducted at 4 hospitals and 1 health maintenance organization in Pittsburgh, Pa, Boston, Mass, and Halifax, Nova Scotia. Data were collected via patient interviews and reviews of medical records for 944 outpatients and 1343 inpatients with clinical and radiographic evidence of community-acquired pneumonia. Processes of care and medical outcomes were assessed 30 days after presentation.
RESULTS: Only 29.7% of outpatients had 1 or more microbiologic tests performed, and only 5.7% had an assigned microbiologic cause. Although 95.7% of inpatients had 1 or more microbiologic tests performed, a cause was established in only 29.6%. Six outpatients (0.6%) died, and 3 of these deaths were pneumonia related. Of surviving outpatients, 8.0% had 1 or more medical complications. At 30 days, 88.9% (nonemployed) to 95.6% (employed) of the surviving outpatients had returned to usual activities, yet 76.0% of outpatients had 1 or more persisting pneumonia-related symptoms. Overall, 107 inpatients (8.0%) died, and 81 of these deaths were pneumonia related. Most surviving inpatients (69.0%) had 1 or more medical complications. At 30 days, 57.3% (non-employed) to 82.0% (employed) of surviving inpatients had returned to usual activities, and 86.1% had 1 or more persisting pneumonia-related symptoms.
CONCLUSIONS: In this study, conducted primarily at hospital sites with affiliated medical education training programs, virtually all outpatients and most inpatients had pneumonia of unknown cause. Although outpatients had an excellent prognosis, pneumonia-related symptoms often persisted at 30 days. Inpatients had substantial mortality, morbidity, and pneumonia-related symptoms at 30 days.
Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, PA, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org