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Treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis infection

Author
Jeanne Marrazzo, MD, MPH, FACP, FIDSA
Section Editor
Noreen A Hynes, MD, MPH, DTM&H
Deputy Editor
Allyson Bloom, MD

INTRODUCTION

Chlamydia trachomatis, a small gram-negative bacterium, is the most common cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) in both men and women [1]. In the United States, it is the most commonly reported nationally-notifiable disease. A significant proportion of patients are asymptomatic, thereby providing an ongoing reservoir for infection. The most frequent clinical manifestation of chlamydial infection in men is urethritis, while the most common finding in women is cervicitis.

The treatment of urethritis, cervicitis, proctitis, and epididymitis secondary to C. trachomatis infection will be reviewed here. The epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of these diseases, as well as other types of C. trachomatis-related diseases, such as pelvic inflammatory disease, reactive arthritis, lymphogranuloma venereum, and endemic trachoma (an ocular infection seen commonly in the developing world), are discussed separately. (See "Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections" and "Epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis infections" and "Screening for sexually transmitted infections", section on 'Chlamydia and gonorrhea' and "Approach to infectious causes of dysuria in the adult man" and "Pelvic inflammatory disease: Clinical manifestations and diagnosis" and "Reactive arthritis" and "Lymphogranuloma venereum" and "Overview of trachoma".)

GENERAL TREATMENT PRINCIPLES

Goals of treatment — The goals of treatment are to:

Prevent complicated infections related to chlamydia and their sequelae (eg, pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, chronic pelvic pain, ectopic pregnancy, epididymitis).

Decrease the risk of transmission to others; this includes sexual partners and infants at delivery, the latter group at risk of acquiring ocular or pulmonary chlamydial infection from an infected mother. (See "Chlamydia trachomatis infections in the newborn".)

                                          

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Literature review current through: Nov 2016. | This topic last updated: Tue Nov 15 00:00:00 GMT+00:00 2016.
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References
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