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INTRODUCTION — Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is a common and potentially fatal cause of acute respiratory distress. The clinical syndrome is characterized by the development of dyspnea, generally associated with rapid accumulation of fluid within the lung's interstitial and alveolar spaces, which is the result of acutely elevated cardiac filling pressures (cardiogenic pulmonary edema) . ADHF can also present as elevated left ventricular filling pressures and dyspnea without pulmonary edema.
ADHF is most commonly due to left ventricular systolic or diastolic dysfunction, with or without additional cardiac pathology, such as coronary artery disease or valve abnormalities. However, a variety of conditions or events can cause cardiogenic pulmonary edema due to an elevated pulmonary capillary wedge pressure in the absence of heart disease, including primary fluid overload (eg, due to blood transfusion), severe hypertension (particularly renovascular hypertension), and severe renal disease.
In the large majority of patients who present with ADHF, acute or subacute decompensation is in the context of chronic HF with reduced ejection fraction (also known as systolic HF) or HF with preserved ejection fraction (also known as diastolic HF) and in many cases, there is a prior history of episodes of decompensation. In such patients, information regarding the precipitating factors, workup for HF, and the elements of successful therapy for prior episodes (eg, types and doses of diuretics used) can be of great value in approaching the current episode.
The components of therapy of ADHF in patients without acute myocardial infarction (MI) will be reviewed here. A table to assist with emergency management of ADHF is provided (table 1). General considerations for treatment of ADHF and the pathophysiology and evaluation of patients with ADHF are presented separately. (See "Treatment of acute decompensated heart failure: General considerations" and "Evaluation of acute decompensated heart failure".)
Treatment of ADHF and cardiogenic shock in the setting of acute coronary syndrome and management of refractory HF (including inadequate response to diuretic therapy) are discussed separately. Management of right ventricular MI, which typically presents with hypotension and clear lungs, is also discussed separately. (See "Treatment of acute decompensated heart failure in acute coronary syndromes" and "Prognosis and treatment of cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction" and "Management of refractory heart failure with reduced ejection fraction" and "Right ventricular myocardial infarction".)
Approach to general management — Patients presenting with acute dyspnea from acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) should be rapidly assessed and stabilized. A table to assist with emergency management of ADHF is provided (table 1). The initial approach is similar in patients with ADHF whether caused by systolic or diastolic dysfunction. Initial measures include:
●Airway assessment and continuous pulse oximetry to assure adequate oxygenation and ventilation
●Supplemental oxygen and ventilatory support (noninvasive ventilation [NIV] or intubation) as indicated
●Vital signs assessment with attention to hypotension or hypertension
●Continuous cardiac monitoring
●Prompt diuretic therapy
●Early vasodilator therapy (for severe hypertension, acute mitral regurgitation, or acute aortic regurgitation); later vasodilator use for refractory cases is discussed below.
●Urine output monitoring (perhaps with urethral catheter placement)
Following airway and oxygenation assessment and management, initial therapy includes the initiation of treatments aimed at rapidly correcting hemodynamic and intravascular volume abnormalities. It is important to tailor the therapy to the individual patient. The mainstay of therapy in the acute setting is diuretic for volume overload.
Early intravenous vasodilator therapy is suggested in selected patients with ADHF who require a decrease in systemic vascular resistance and left ventricular afterload (eg, those with severe hypertension, acute mitral regurgitation, or acute aortic regurgitation). The aggressiveness of diuretic and vasodilator therapy depends on the patient's hemodynamic and volume status. Patients with flash pulmonary edema due to hypertension, for instance, require aggressive vasodilatory therapy. Patients with normotension and volume overload may be treated with diuretic therapy with or without vasodilator therapy.
Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis is indicated in patients hospitalized with acute HF. Sodium restriction is suggested in all patients with HF.
Vasopressin receptor antagonists are a rarely required option for patients with volume overload with severe hyponatremia (ie, serum sodium ≤120 meq/L) despite fluid restriction. We suggest generally avoiding opiate therapy in patients with ADHF.
Supplemental oxygen and assisted ventilation — Supplemental oxygen therapy and assisted ventilation should be provided as needed to treat hypoxemia (SpO2 <90 percent). Oxygen is not recommended as routine therapy in patients without hypoxemia, as it may cause vasoconstriction and reduction in cardiac output .
For patients requiring supplemental oxygen, we suggest initial therapies in the following order:
●Non-rebreather facemask delivering high-flow percent oxygen.
●If respiratory distress, respiratory acidosis, and/or hypoxia persist on oxygen therapy, we recommend a trial of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) if emergent intubation is not indicated (algorithm 1), no contraindications to NIV exist (table 2), and personnel with experience in NIV are available.
This approach is supported by evidence from meta-analyses and randomized trials in patients with cardiogenic pulmonary edema, indicating that NIV decreases the need for intubation and improves respiratory parameters, such as dyspnea, hypercapnia, acidosis, and heart rate. NIV may be particularly beneficial in patients with hypercapnia. These issues and conflicting data on a possible impact on mortality are discussed in detail separately. (See "Noninvasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure in adults", section on 'Cardiogenic pulmonary edema'.)
●Patients with respiratory failure who fail to improve with NIV (within one-half to two hours) or do not tolerate or have contraindications to NIV (table 2) should be intubated for conventional mechanical ventilation. In such patients, positive end-expiratory pressure is often useful to improve oxygenation. (See "Overview of mechanical ventilation" and "Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP)".)
Once initial therapy has begun, oxygen supplementation can be titrated in order to keep the patient comfortable and arterial oxygen saturation consistently above 90 percent.
Diuretics — Patients with ADHF and evidence of volume overload, regardless of etiology, should be promptly treated with intravenous diuretics as part of their initial therapy [3-5]. As noted in the 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) HF guidelines, patients admitted with significant fluid overload should receive diuretic therapy without delay in the emergency department or outpatient clinic, as early intervention may produce better outcomes . The expeditious initiation of an effective diuretic regimen is important in controlling dyspnea and other symptoms related to fluid overload, and in addition, may improve in-hospital outcomes. A multicenter, prospective observational study of 1291 patients with ADHF treated within 24 hours of their arrival in an emergency department found that early treatment (<60 minutes) was associated with a lower in-hospital mortality than later treatment (2.3 versus 6.0 percent) . Early treatment remained significantly associated with lower in-hospital mortality in multivariate analysis (odds ratio [OR] 0.39, 95% CI 0.20-0.76). As time to diuresis was delayed, the risk of mortality increased steeply during the first 100 minutes and then leveled off.
Rare exceptions in which some delay in diuresis may be required include patients with severe hypotension or cardiogenic shock. In such cases, the underlying cause for hemodynamic instability should be sought, and the patient may require hemodynamic and mechanical ventilatory support along with diuresis. Patients with aortic stenosis with volume overload should be diuresed with caution.
Patients with ADHF are usually volume overloaded. Even in the less common situation in which cardiogenic pulmonary edema develops without significant volume overload (eg, with hypertensive emergency, acute aortic or mitral valvular insufficiency), fluid removal with intravenous diuretics can relieve symptoms and improve oxygenation. Intravenous rather than oral administration is recommended because of greater and more consistent drug bioavailability.
Limited clinical trial data have shown a mortality benefit from diuretic therapy in patients with chronic HF (see "Use of diuretics in patients with heart failure", section on 'Efficacy and safety'). Although the safety and efficacy of diuretics to treat ADHF have not been established in randomized trials, extensive observational experience has demonstrated that they effectively relieve congestive symptoms .
Individualized dosing — Diuretic dosing should be individualized and titrated according to patient status and response. The approach to initial diuretic therapy in patients with ADHF and fluid overload varies according to whether or not the patient has received prior loop diuretic therapy:
●For patients who have not previously received loop diuretic therapy, the following are common initial intravenous doses of loop diuretics in patients with normal renal function:
•Furosemide – 20 to 40 mg intravenously
•Bumetanide – 1 mg intravenously
•Torsemide – 10 to 20 mg intravenously
If there is little or no response to the initial dose, the dose should be doubled at two-hour intervals as needed up to the maximum recommended doses. While patients with a relatively normal glomerular filtration rate (typically estimated from the serum creatinine concentration, although this method can be used only if kidney function is stable) can usually be diuresed with intravenous doses of 40 to 80 mg of furosemide, 20 to 40 mg of torsemide, or 1 to 2 mg of bumetanide, patients with renal insufficiency or severe HF may require higher maximum bolus doses of up to 160 to 200 mg of furosemide, 100 to 200 mg of torsemide, or 4 to 8 mg of bumetanide . (See "Treatment of refractory edema in adults", section on 'Basic principles of diuretic dosing' and "Treatment of refractory edema in adults", section on 'Maximum effective dose of loop diuretics'.)
●Patients treated with loop diuretics chronically may need a higher dose in the acute setting; the initial intravenous dose should be equal to or greater than (eg, 2.5 times) their maintenance total daily oral dose and then adjusted depending upon the response (eg, an initial intravenous furosemide dose of 40 to 100 mg for a patient who had been taking 40 mg orally per day). In the DOSE trial of intravenous furosemide in patients with ADHF, there was an almost significant trend toward greater improvement in patients’ global assessment of symptoms in the high-dose (2.5 times the patients’ prior total daily diuretic dose) group compared with the low-dose (equal to the prior total daily dose) group, as discussed below . Subsequent dose escalation and maximum doses are similar to those used in patients who are not already being treated with loop diuretics.
Bolus diuretic administration two or more times per day may be necessary. A continuous intravenous infusion is an alternative to intravenous bolus therapy, although data are limited . Use of a continuous intravenous infusion requires that the patient be responsive to intravenous bolus therapy, which results in higher initial plasma concentrations and therefore higher initial rates of urinary diuretic excretion than a continuous infusion. A continuous infusion should not be tried in patients who have not shown response to a maximum intravenous bolus dose. (See "Treatment of refractory edema in adults", section on 'Regimen' and "Use of diuretics in patients with heart failure".)
As an example, an initial intravenous bolus of 20 to 40 mg of furosemide administered over one to two minutes may be followed by a continuous infusion of approximately 5 mg/h in patients with relative intact renal function (estimated glomerular filtration [GFR] rate greater than 75 mL/min) and rates of up to 20 mg/h in patients with an estimated GFR less than 30 mL/min. Adding a thiazide diuretic may potentiate the effect, but hypokalemia should be avoided .
The onset of diuresis typically occurs within 30 minutes with peak diuresis usually at one to two hours after intravenous diuretic administration.
We suggest switching from an effective intravenous dose to an oral regimen once the patient’s acute symptoms have been stabilized to help ensure that an effective outpatient dose is identified and prescribed.
Evidence — No single intravenous dosing regimen (bolus versus continuous infusion; high versus lower dose) has been shown to be superior to others, as discussed separately. (See "Use of diuretics in patients with heart failure", section on 'Treatment of ADHF'.)
Monitoring — Volume status, evidence of congestion, oxygenation, daily weight, fluid intake, and output should be continually reassessed. Monitoring should also include watching for and guarding against side effects (including electrolyte abnormalities, symptomatic hypotension, worsening renal function and metabolic alkalosis). Diuretic therapy can also precipitate attacks of gout. The later transition from intravenous to oral diuretics should be made with careful attention to HF status, supine and upright hypotension, renal function, and electrolytes. (See "Loop diuretics: Maximum effective dose and major side effects" and "Diuretic-induced hyperuricemia and gout".)
Electrolytes — Serum potassium and magnesium levels should be monitored at least daily, and more frequent monitoring is indicated when diuresis is rapid, particularly since hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia increase the risk of arrhythmia. Severe muscle cramps may occur with overly rapid diuresis and should be treated with potassium and magnesium repletion if indicated .
Hemodynamic effects — Careful monitoring during diuresis is required to prevent adverse hemodynamic effects. By reducing intravascular volume, diuresis will eventually lower central venous and pulmonary capillary wedge pressures. In addition, furosemide and possibly other loop diuretics also have an initial morphine-like effect in acute pulmonary edema, causing venodilation that can decrease pulmonary congestion prior to the onset of diuresis . This effect appears to be mediated by enhanced release of prostaglandins. (See "Use of diuretics in patients with heart failure", section on 'Venodilatory effect in acute pulmonary edema'.)
Reductions in right and left heart filling pressures with diuresis are frequently associated with augmented forward stroke volume and cardiac output. Improved forward stroke volume is related to decreases in functional tricuspid and mitral regurgitation and reduction in right ventricular volume with relief of interdependent left ventricular compression and improved left ventricular distensibility . (See "Cardiorenal syndrome: Definition, prevalence, diagnosis, and pathophysiology", section on 'Right ventricular dilatation and dysfunction'.)
However, during diuresis, some patients experience symptomatic hypotension with decreasing cardiac output and systemic blood pressure due to a lag in re-equilibration of intravascular volume via movement of fluid from the interstitial space. Patients with HF with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction or restrictive physiology may be more sensitive to diuresis-induced reductions in preload. Diuretics may enhance the hypotensive effects of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) therapy even when volume overload persists.
Patterns of change — The blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine often rise during diuretic treatment of ADHF and careful monitoring is recommended. In the absence of other causes for an elevated BUN, a disproportionate rise in BUN relative to serum creatinine (BUN/serum creatinine ratio >20:1) suggests a prerenal state with increased passive reabsorption of urea. An initial rise in BUN may be accompanied by a stable serum creatinine, reflecting preserved GFR. Further elevations in BUN along with a rise in serum creatinine are likely if diuresis is continued in such patients. (See "Etiology and diagnosis of prerenal disease and acute tubular necrosis in acute kidney injury in adults", section on 'Blood urea nitrogen/serum creatinine ratio'.)
An otherwise unexplained rise in serum creatinine, which reflects a reduction in GFR, may be a marker of reduced perfusion to the kidney and other organs. Patients in whom this occurs before euvolemic status is achieved have a worse prognosis. Nevertheless, fluid removal may still be required to treat signs and symptoms of congestion, particularly pulmonary edema. On the other hand, a stable serum creatinine suggests that perfusion to the kidneys (and therefore to other organs) is being well maintained and that the diuresis can be continued if the patient is still edematous. (See "Cardiorenal syndrome: Definition, prevalence, diagnosis, and pathophysiology", section on 'Reduced renal perfusion' and "Cardiorenal syndrome: Prognosis and treatment", section on 'Change in GFR during therapy for HF'.)
Changes in cardiac output and the consequent changes in renal perfusion are not the only determinant of changes in GFR in patients with HF. Among patients with an elevated central venous pressure, the associated increase in renal venous pressure can reduce the GFR, while lowering venous pressure with diuretics and other therapies might therefore increase the GFR. (See "Cardiorenal syndrome: Definition, prevalence, diagnosis, and pathophysiology".)
Management of worsening renal function — Guidelines for management of patients with ADHF with elevated or rising BUN and/or serum creatinine include the following :
●Other potential causes of kidney injury (eg, use of nephrotoxic medications, urinary obstruction) should be evaluated and addressed.
●Patients with severe symptoms or signs of congestion, particularly pulmonary edema, require continued fluid removal independent of changes in GFR. In the presence of elevated central venous pressure, renal function may improve with diuresis. (See "Cardiorenal syndrome: Definition, prevalence, diagnosis, and pathophysiology", section on 'Increased renal venous pressure'.)
●If the BUN rises and the serum creatinine is stable or increases minimally, and the patient is still fluid overloaded, the diuresis can be continued to achieve the goal of eliminating clinical evidence of fluid retention with careful monitoring of renal function. (See "Use of diuretics in patients with heart failure", section on 'Goals of therapy'.)
●If increases in serum creatinine appear to reflect intravascular volume depletion, then reduction in or temporary discontinuation of diuretic and/or ACE inhibitor/ARB therapy should be considered. Adjunctive inotropic therapy may be required. (See 'Inotropic agents' below.)
●If substantial congestion persists and adequate diuresis cannot be achieved, then ultrafiltration or dialysis should be considered. (See "Renal replacement therapy (dialysis) in acute kidney injury in adults: Indications, timing, and dialysis dose", section on 'Urgent indications'.)
Approach to vasodilator therapy — Vasodilators may be required to correct elevated filling pressures and/or left ventricular afterload in patients with ADHF. Indications for vasodilator therapy in the setting of ADHF include the following: early vasodilator therapy (eg, nitroprusside) is recommended for patients with urgent need for afterload reduction (eg, severe hypertension); vasodilator therapy (eg, nitroglycerin) is suggested as an adjunct to diuretic therapy for patients without adequate response to diuretics; and vasodilator therapy is a component of therapy for patients with refractory HF and low cardiac output, as discussed below and separately. (See "Management of refractory heart failure with reduced ejection fraction", section on 'Approaches to specific refractory heart failure presentations'.)
We suggest early vasodilator therapy (typically, nitroprusside) in patients with severe hypertension, acute mitral regurgitation, or acute aortic regurgitation. Reliable blood pressure monitoring is required, and careful patient assessment is needed in determining the best vasodilator for the situation. These agents should be reduced or discontinued if symptomatic hypotension develops. (See "Acute mitral regurgitation in adults" and "Acute aortic regurgitation in adults".)
Use of vasodilator therapy in patients with ADHF is largely based upon hemodynamic response and expert opinion [3,4], since evidence on efficacy and safety of vasodilatory therapy in this setting is limited [12,13].
The routine use of vasodilators does not improve outcomes, and should be avoided . For example, the largest randomized trial of the routine use of nesiritide in patients with ADHF, ASCEND-HF, found that nesiritide showed a borderline significant trend toward reducing dyspnea, but increased rates of hypotension, and did not alter rates of death, rehospitalization at 30 days, or worsening renal function . As such, we recommend not treating patients routinely with nesiritide. (See "Nesiritide in the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure".)
Nitroglycerin — Nitrates, the most commonly used vasodilators in ADHF, cause greater venous than arterial vasodilation. They reduce left ventricular filling pressure primarily via venodilation. At higher doses, nitrates variably lower systemic vascular resistance and LV afterload, and may thereby increase stroke volume and cardiac output.
In patients with ADHF receiving nitrate therapy, an intravenous (rather than transdermal [ointment or patch] or oral) route is used for greater speed and reliability of delivery and ease of titration. An initial dose of 5 to 10 mcg/min of intravenous nitroglycerin is recommended with the dose increased in increments of 5 to 10 mcg/min every three to five minutes as required and tolerated (dose range 10 to 200 mcg/min). Similar benefits have been described with high-dose intravenous isosorbide dinitrate, where available [12,13]. However, if hypotension occurs, the longer half-life of isosorbide dinitrate compared with intravenous nitroglycerin (four hours versus three to five minutes) is a major disadvantage.
Tachyphylaxis can occur within hours with administration of high doses of nitroglycerin and the strategy of nitrate-free interval used to reduce tolerance during chronic therapy could result in adverse hemodynamic effects in patients with ADHF. Potential adverse effects of nitroglycerin include hypotension and headache. Nitrate therapy should be avoided or used with caution in settings in which hypotension is likely or could result in serious decompensation such as right ventricular infarction or aortic stenosis. Nitrate administration is contraindicated after use of PDE-5 inhibitors such as sildenafil. (See "Sexual activity in patients with cardiovascular disease", section on 'Adverse interaction with nitrates' and "Right ventricular myocardial infarction", section on 'Optimization of right ventricular preload' and "Medical management of symptomatic aortic stenosis", section on 'Medical management'.)
As noted in a systematic review of the limited studies comparing intravenous nitroglycerin with placebo in patients with acute HF, very low-quality evidence showed a decrease in mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure with intravenous nitroglycerin compared with placebo but evidence of clinical benefit was lacking .
Nitroprusside — In contrast to nitroglycerin, nitroprusside causes balanced arterial and venous dilation. Thus, while it can be used to decrease left ventricular filling pressures, it will cause a concomitant decrease in systemic vascular resistance. In patients in whom systemic resistance is elevated, the resulting decrease in afterload can increase stroke volume without lowering blood pressure; whereas if systemic vascular resistance is not elevated, nitroprusside may cause hypotension. Likewise, arterial dilation and afterload reduction can be of value in patients with depressed stroke volume due to elevated left ventricular afterload such as acute aortic regurgitation, acute mitral regurgitation, acute ventricular septal rupture, or hypertensive emergency. (See "Drugs used for the treatment of hypertensive emergencies", section on 'Nitroprusside'.)
Because of its very potent hemodynamic effects and the potential to excessively lower blood pressure, the use of nitroprusside requires close hemodynamic monitoring, typically with an intra-arterial catheter. The initial dose of 5 to 10 mcg/min is titrated up every five minutes as tolerated to a dose range of 5 to 400 mcg/min.
The major limitation to the use of nitroprusside is its metabolism to cyanide. The accumulation of nitroprusside metabolites can lead to the development of cyanide, or rarely thiocyanate, toxicity, which may be fatal. Doses above 400 mcg/min generally do not provide greater benefit and may increase the risk of thiocyanate toxicity. Nitroprusside administration requires close and continuous blood pressure monitoring, and may cause reflex tachycardia. Another potential risk is rebound vasoconstriction upon discontinuation of nitroprusside . Thus, the use of nitroprusside is limited to selected patients, usually for durations of less than 24 to 48 hours.
Nesiritide — Nesiritide, like nitroprusside, is a balanced arterial and venous dilator. We recommend against routine treatment of patients with ADHF with nesiritide. In carefully selected patients with appropriate hemodynamics (including absence of hypotension or cardiogenic shock) who remain symptomatic despite routine therapy, a trial of nesiritide may be helpful as an alternative to other vasodilator therapy (nitroglycerin or nitroprusside).
Nesiritide is typically given as an initial intravenous bolus of 2 mcg/kg, followed by a continuous infusion of 0.01 mcg/kg per minute, with subsequent dose adjustment as necessary. Close monitoring of hemodynamics, urine output, and renal function are necessary for effective clinical use and safety.
Nesiritide is less potent than nitroprusside, and both the onset and offset of action are slower. Because nesiritide has a longer effective half-life than nitroglycerin or nitroprusside, side effects such as hypotension may persist longer. (See "Nesiritide in the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure", section on 'Use'.)
Sodium and fluid restriction
Sodium restriction — Sodium restriction has been commonly recommended in patients with acute or chronic HF, although there are insufficient data to support any specific level of sodium intake in patients with symptomatic HF, as noted in the 2013 ACC/AHA and 2012 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines [4,17]. Given the available evidence, we suggest sodium restriction (eg, <2 g/d) in patients with symptomatic HF. The 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines suggest some degree (eg, <3 g/d) of sodium restriction in patients with symptomatic HF , while the 2012 ESC guidelines note that the safety and efficacy of salt restriction require further study . (See "Patient education: Low-sodium diet (Beyond the Basics)".)
Fluid restriction — Fluid restriction (eg, 1.5 to 2 L/d) may be helpful in patients with refractory HF and hyponatremia, as suggested by the 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines . Stricter fluid restriction is indicated in patients with severe (serum sodium <125 meq/L) or worsening hyponatremia, although patient tolerance of strict fluid restriction may be limited. (See "Hyponatremia in patients with heart failure", section on 'Treatment' and "Overview of the treatment of hyponatremia in adults".)
Hyponatremia is common among HF patients and the degree of reduction in serum sodium parallels the severity of the HF. As a result, a low serum sodium is an adverse prognostic indicator. Most HF patients with hyponatremia have volume overload rather than volume depletion.
Evidence — The evidence to support sodium and/or fluid restriction in patients with ADHF is inconclusive, with two small randomized trials of fluid restriction or fluid and sodium restriction in patients hospitalized with HF showing no benefit [18,19]. As an example, the second study randomly assigned 75 patients with ADHF due to systolic dysfunction treated with the usual pharmacologic interventions to a diet with a maximum dietary sodium intake of 800 mg/day and a maximum fluid intake of 800 mL/day or to a similar diet with 3 to 5 g of total sodium intake and a fluid intake of at least 2.5 L/day . At three days, weight loss was similar in both groups, as were measures of clinical congestion. Perceived thirst (graded on a scale of 0 to 10), was significantly worse in the group with stricter sodium and fluid intake (between group difference, 1.66 points).
Although some studies have suggested a possible benefit from a regimen of hypertonic saline plus furosemide in patients with ADHF, this approach is controversial and is of uncertain safety and efficacy. (See "Investigational and emerging therapies for heart failure".)
Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis — Prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism (deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) with low-dose unfractionated heparin or low molecular weight heparin, or fondaparinux, is indicated in patients admitted with ADHF who are not already anticoagulated and have no contraindication to anticoagulation. In patients admitted with ADHF who have a contraindication to anticoagulation, venous thromboembolism prophylaxis with a mechanical device (eg, intermittent pneumatic compression device) is suggested . These issues are discussed in detail separately. (See "Prevention of venous thromboembolic disease in acutely ill hospitalized medical adults".)
Vasopressin receptor antagonists — Vasopressin receptor antagonists have been investigated as an adjunct to diuretics and other standard therapies in patients with ADHF as a means of countering arterial vasoconstriction, hyponatremia, and water retention. Tolvaptan is the most studied agent in this setting. However, such treatment is controversial since the long-term safety and benefit of this approach are unknown. (See "Hyponatremia in patients with heart failure", section on 'Efficacy'.)
For patients with HF with volume overload with persistent severe hyponatremia (ie, serum sodium ≤120 meq/L) despite water restriction and maintenance of guideline-directed medical therapy, short-term use of a vasopressin receptor antagonist (either a V2 receptor selective or nonselective vasopressin antagonist) is an option to improve serum sodium concentration . Cautions include hepatotoxicity (with the United States Food and Drug Administration determining that tolvaptan should be not be used in any patient for longer than 30 days and should not be used at all in patients with liver disease due to risk of liver failure or death) and overly rapid correction of hyponatremia, which can lead to irreversible neurologic injury. These issues are further discussed separately. (See "Hyponatremia in patients with heart failure", section on 'Vasopressin receptor antagonists'.)
Our approach is similar to the 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines, which classify as reasonable the short-term use of vasopressin antagonists in hospitalized patients with volume overload who have persistent severe hyponatremia and are at risk for cognitive symptoms despite water restriction and maximization of guideline-directed medical therapy, although the long-term safety and benefit of this approach are unknown . The 2012 ESC guidelines suggest consideration of tolvaptan for HF patients with hyponatremia in an ungraded recommendation .
Opiate — Given the limited evidence of benefits and potential risks of opiates, we suggest generally avoiding opiate therapy in the treatment of ADHF.
Data are limited on the effects of morphine therapy in ADHF. Morphine reduces patient anxiety and decreases the work of breathing. These effects diminish central sympathetic outflow, leading to arteriolar and venous dilatation with a resultant fall in cardiac filling pressures [20,21].
A systematic review that included one prospective and four retrospective studies of opiates (morphine or diamorphine) in ADHF found that the available evidence was very low quality, with no evidence of benefit and some evidence of harm . The largest of the studies found that morphine administration for ADHF was associated with increased frequency of mechanical ventilation, admission to an intensive care unit, and in-hospital mortality . After risk adjustment and exclusion of ventilated patients, morphine remained an independent predictor of mortality (OR 4.8, 95% CI 4.52-5.18). Two smaller studies found no significant differences in mortality rates with opiate therapy. Although risk adjustment in the largest study may not have been adequate, the results raise concern about the safety of opiate therapy in this population.
The 2012 ESC guidelines include consideration of opiates such as morphine in some patients with acute pulmonary edema as an ungraded recommendation, noting that they reduce anxiety and distress associated with dyspnea but also induce nausea and depress respiratory drive . Morphine therapy is not mentioned in the 2010 Heart Failure Society of America guidelines on management of ADHF or in the 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines.
The role of morphine sulfate in patients with ADHF who have an acute myocardial infarction is discussed separately. (See "Treatment of acute decompensated heart failure in acute coronary syndromes", section on 'Morphine sulfate'.)
MANAGEMENT OF HYPOTENSIVE PATIENTS
Approach to hypotension — The approach to acute HF and hypotension differs for HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF).
Treatment of patients with HFrEF and hypotension is guided by hemodynamics, which are most commonly imputed from the physical examination with more direct assessment by right heart catheterization performed when required for selected cases. If the systolic blood pressure is <85 mmHg or there is evidence of shock (eg, cool extremities, narrow pulse pressure, low urine output, confusion), addition of an inotrope is suggested . In patients with persistent shock, a vasopressor may be added as a temporizing measure to support perfusion to vital organs, though this is at the expense of increased left ventricular afterload. Selected patients with hypotension may benefit from vasodilator therapy guided by invasive monitoring, including pulmonary artery catheter. For selected patients with severe HFrEF (generally with left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] <25 percent) with acute, severe hemodynamic compromise, nondurable mechanical support (eg, intra-aortic balloon pump [IABP], extracorporeal circulatory membrane oxygenator [ECMO], or extracorporeal ventricular assist devices) is an option as a "bridge to decision" or "bridge to recovery" [4,17].
Patients with HFpEF presenting with hypotension should not receive inotropic therapy and may require a vasopressor in addition to diuretic therapy. Patients who develop hypotension with dynamic left ventricular outflow obstruction are treated with beta blocker therapy, a vasopressor (eg, phenylephrine or norepinephrine), and gentle hydration if pulmonary edema is not present. Dynamic left ventricular outflow obstruction occurs in some patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy but is not limited to patients with that condition. (See "Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: Medical therapy", section on 'Acute hemodynamic collapse in the setting of LVOT obstruction'.)
Indications — Intravenous inotropic agents such as dobutamine and/or milrinone may be required as a temporizing measure in patients with severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction and low output syndrome (diminished peripheral perfusion and end-organ dysfunction). We agree with the recommendations on inotropic agents in the 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association guideline on HF . Temporary intravenous inotropic support was recommended for patients with cardiogenic shock to maintain systemic perfusion and preserve end-organ performance until definitive therapy (eg, coronary revascularization, mechanical circulatory support, or heart transplantation) is instituted or resolution of the acute precipitating problem has occurred. Continuous intravenous inotropic support was felt to be reasonable as “bridge therapy” in patients with stage D HF refractory to guideline-directed medical therapy and device therapy who are eligible for and awaiting mechanical circulatory support or cardiac transplantation. In addition, the guidelines noted that inotropic therapy “may be reasonable” (a very weak recommendation) in the following settings: short-term, continuous intravenous inotropic support in hospitalized patients presenting with documented severe systolic dysfunction who present with low blood pressure and significantly depressed cardiac output to maintain systemic perfusion and preserve end-organ performance; and long-term continuous intravenous inotropic support as palliative therapy for symptom control in select patients with stage D HF despite optimal guideline-directed medical therapy and device therapy who are not eligible for either mechanical circulatory support or cardiac transplantation. (See "Palliative care for patients with advanced heart failure: Indications and strategies".)
Patients receiving intravenous inotropes require continuous or frequent blood pressure monitoring and continuous monitoring of cardiac rhythm . Invasive hemodynamic monitoring is indicated in patients with respiratory distress or impaired systemic perfusion with uncertain hemodynamic status . If symptomatic hypotension or worsening tachyarrhythmias develop during inotrope administration, dose reduction or discontinuation is suggested.
Inotropes are not indicated for treatment of ADHF in the setting of preserved systolic function.
Patients with hypotension with dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (who may have normal or depressed left ventricular systolic function) should not receive inotropes since they can provoke or worsen the obstruction . Patients with dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction are treated with beta blockers and careful fluid resuscitation in the absence of significant pulmonary congestion. Vasopressor therapy may be required for severe hypotension. (See "Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: Medical therapy", section on 'Heart failure' and "Management and prognosis of stress (takotsubo) cardiomyopathy", section on 'With left ventricular outflow tract obstruction'.)
●Milrinone – Milrinone is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor that increases myocardial inotropy by inhibiting degradation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate. Other direct effects of milrinone include reducing systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance (via inhibition of peripheral phosphodiesterase) and improving left ventricular diastolic compliance [24,25]. These changes lead to an increase in cardiac index and decrease in left ventricular afterload and filling pressures. Patients should receive a loading dose of 50 mcg/kg over 10 minutes, followed by a maintenance dose of 0.375 to a maximum of 0.750 mcg/kg per min. Dose adjustment is required in the presence of renal insufficiency, hypotension, or arrhythmias.
●Dobutamine – Dobutamine acts primarily on beta-1 adrenergic receptors, with minimal effects on beta-2 and alpha-1 receptors. The hemodynamic effects of dobutamine include increases in stroke volume and cardiac output, and modest decreases in systemic vascular resistance and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure [26,27]. It should be started at 2.5 mcg/kg per min and, if tolerated and needed, can be gradually increased to 20 mcg/kg per min.
●Dopamine – At low doses of 1 to 3 µg/kg per min, dopamine acts primarily on dopamine-1 receptors to dilate the renal and mesenteric artery beds . At 3 to 10 µg/kg per min (and perhaps also at lower doses), dopamine also stimulates beta-1 adrenergic receptors and increases cardiac output, predominantly by increasing stroke volume with variable effects on heart rate. At medium-to-high doses, dopamine also stimulates alpha-adrenergic receptors, although a small study suggested that renal arterial vasodilation and improvement in cardiac output may persist as the dopamine dose is titrated up to 10 µg/kg per min .
Although it has been proposed that dopamine might improve renal function in patients with severe HF by increasing renal blood flow and possibly by reducing renal venous pressure, data supporting such a potential benefit are limited. Specifically, the addition of low-dose dopamine to diuretic therapy was not found to enhance decongestion or improve renal function . (See "Cardiorenal syndrome: Prognosis and treatment", section on 'Inotropic drugs'.)
Evidence — A systematic review of randomized controlled trials of inotropes in ADHF found that evidence was insufficient to determine the clinical efficacy and safety of such therapy .
There is concern that inotropic agents may adversely impact outcomes in patients with ADHF with congestion without a low output state [30,31]. Inotropic agents may increase heart rate and myocardial oxygen consumption and thus provoke ischemia and potentially damage hibernating but viable myocardium, particularly in patients with ischemic heart disease. In addition, inotropic agents can increase atrial  and ventricular  arrhythmias. Given these concerns, careful patient selection is required for inotrope use. (See "Inotropic agents in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction", section on 'Intravenous therapy' and "Use of vasopressors and inotropes".)
Routine use of inotropes in patients hospitalized for HF was found to be harmful in the OPTIME-CHF trial . In this trial, 949 patients admitted to the hospital with an acute exacerbation of chronic HF were randomly assigned to a 48- to 72-hour infusion of milrinone or placebo. Milrinone therapy was associated with significant increases in hypotension requiring intervention and atrial arrhythmias, and with nonsignificant increases in mortality in-hospital (3.8 versus 2.3 percent) and at 60 days (10.3 versus 8.9 percent). This trial did not evaluate patients whose treating physicians felt could not be randomized, but demonstrates overall adverse effects in noncritical patients despite improved symptoms.
The general role of inotropic agents in patients with HFrEF is discussed separately. (See "Inotropic agents in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction", section on 'Intravenous therapy'.)
Vasopressor therapy — In patients with ADHF and marked hypotension, vasopressor therapy can be used as a temporizing measure to preserve systemic blood pressure and end-organ perfusion, although at the cost of increasing afterload and decreasing cardiac output . Vasopressor use should be limited to patients with persistent hypotension with symptoms or evidence of consequent end-organ hypoperfusion despite optimization of filling pressures and use of inotropic agents as appropriate. In this setting, invasive monitoring can be helpful to assess filling pressures and systemic vascular resistance. (See "Pulmonary artery catheterization: Indications, contraindications, and complications in adults", section on 'Indications'.)
Vasopressors used in this setting include norepinephrine, high-dose dopamine (>5 micrograms/kg/min), and vasopressin, and these should be carefully titrated to achieve adequate perfusion of vital organs (table 3). Dopamine and norepinephrine have beta inotropic as well as vasopressor activity. (See "Use of vasopressors and inotropes".)
A systematic review found no evidence to determine the clinical efficacy and safety of vasopressor therapy in ADHF .
Mechanical cardiac support — For selected patients with severe HFrEF (generally with LVEF <25 percent) with acute, severe hemodynamic compromise (cardiogenic pulmonary edema with cardiogenic shock), nondurable mechanical support is an option as a “bridge to decision” or “bridge to recovery” [4,17]. These patients usually have a cardiac index less than 2.0 L/min per m2, a systolic arterial pressure below 90 mmHg, and a pulmonary capillary wedge pressure above 18 mmHg, despite adequate pharmacologic therapy. (See "Management of refractory heart failure with reduced ejection fraction", section on 'Mechanical circulatory support'.)
Mechanical modalities used in this setting include IABP, ECMO, or short-term left ventricular assist devices. (See "Intraaortic balloon pump counterpulsation" and "Short-term mechanical circulatory assist devices".)
CONTINUATION OR INITIATION OF LONG-TERM THERAPY — The approach to managing long-term therapy during hospitalization for acute heart failure (HF) differs for HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF).
Approach to long-term therapy for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction — The general principles for treatment of HFpEF are control of systolic and diastolic hypertension, control of heart rate (particularly in patients with atrial fibrillation), control of pulmonary congestion and peripheral edema with diuresis (with care to avoid hypotension and/or left ventricular outflow obstruction), and treatment of associated conditions (eg, coronary artery disease). (See "Treatment and prognosis of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction".)
For patients with HFpEF who are hemodynamically stable during an acute decompensated HF (ADHF) episode, chronic antihypertensive therapy may be continued with careful monitoring. However, some patients with acute HF have severe hypertension that may require parental vasodilator therapy . On the other hand, some patients with small left ventricular cavities and/or left ventricular hypertrophy are volume-sensitive and at risk for developing hypotension with diuresis. After the patient is stabilized and prior to discharge, an oral medical regimen should be instituted, including antihypertensive and diuretic therapy as needed. (See "Treatment and prognosis of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction", section on 'Treatment'.)
Approach to long-term therapy for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction — Evidence-based pharmacologic therapy to reduce morbidity and mortality for patients with chronic HFrEF includes an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, single-agent angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), or angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI); a beta blocker; and a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA). During an acute HF episode, management of these agents depends upon whether the patient was already receiving these medications and whether the patient has contraindications to therapy such as hemodynamic instability or acute kidney injury. Once the patient is stable, evidence-based therapies are carefully initiated, re-initiated, or titrated with arrangements for appropriate outpatient follow-up. In stable patients, ACE inhibitor, ARB, or ARNI and beta blocker therapy should be initiated prior to hospital discharge and MRA should be added prior to or soon after discharge (as needed to allow appropriate monitoring of serum potassium levels). (See "Overview of the therapy of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction" and "Pharmacologic therapy of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction".)
ACE inhibitor, ARB, or ARNI — For patients with HFrEF, an ACE inhibitor (or ARB if ACE inhibitor is not tolerated) or ARNI is a mainstay of chronic therapy. (See "ACE inhibitors in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: Therapeutic use" and "Use of angiotensin II receptor blocker in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction" and "Use of angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction".)
Continued therapy — For patients who are already taking an ACE inhibitor, single-agent ARB, or ARNI, we suggest that maintenance of oral therapy be cautiously continued. However, the dose should be decreased or the drug discontinued if hypotension, worsening renal function, or hyperkalemia is present.
With regard to hypotension, two additional points should be considered:
●Some patients with chronic HF and severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction tolerate relatively low blood pressures (eg, systolic blood pressure 90 to 100 mmHg). Such patients often tolerate chronic ACE inhibitor, ARB, or ARNI therapy and may tolerate these drugs in the acute setting as well.
●Patients with acute pulmonary edema may initially be hypertensive due to high catecholamine levels during the early period of distress. With initial therapy, blood pressure may fall rapidly and patients may become relatively hypotensive, particularly if they are aggressively diuresed. Thus, long-acting drugs, such as ACE inhibitors, ARBs, or ARNI should be administered with caution or avoided during the first few hours of hospitalization.
Initiation of therapy — For patients who are not already taking an ACE inhibitor, single-agent ARB, or ARNI, we suggest not initiating such therapy at the time of presentation with an episode of ADHF.
Although some have advocated early use of intravenous ACE inhibitor in patients with ADHF, we do not recommend this approach. There are limited data on the safety and efficacy of initiating new ACE inhibitor (or ARB) therapy in the early phase of therapy of ADHF (ie, the first 12 to 24 hours) .
Major concerns with early therapy include:
●Patients with ADHF may develop hypotension and/or worsening renal function during initial therapy. Determining the pathogenesis of such complications is more difficult if an ACE inhibitor or ARB has been given. Hypotension following administration of these agents may be prolonged given the long effective half-lives of these agents.
●The intravenous ACE inhibitor enalaprilat may have deleterious effects in patients with an acute myocardial infarction (MI), especially when complicated by HF or aggressive diuresis [35,36]. Thus, intravenous enalaprilat is contraindicated in acute MI and not generally recommended in other patients with ADHF, although it is potentially useful in certain situations [34,36]. Other agents are available, if needed, to treat refractory hypertension.
Early initiation of oral ACE inhibitor (or single agent ARB or ARNI) therapy is also not recommended (except for early oral ACE inhibitor use in those with acute MI) and should be avoided in patients at high risk for hypotension (eg, low baseline blood pressure or hyponatremia, which is a marker for increased activation of the renin-angiotensin system and therefore increased dependence upon angiotensin II for blood pressure maintenance). In addition, aggressive diuretic therapy typically given for acute pulmonary edema may increase sensitivity to ACE inhibition or angiotensin blockade, including risks of hypotension and renal dysfunction. (See "Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and receptor blockers in acute myocardial infarction: Recommendations for use" and "Pathophysiology of heart failure: Neurohumoral adaptations" and "Hyponatremia in patients with heart failure".)
An oral ACE inhibitor or ARB can usually be started 24 to 48 hours after presentation, once the patient is hemodynamically stable. Initiation of these therapies known to improve outcomes is recommended prior to hospital discharge. We reserve use of the ARNI sacubitril-valsartan for selected patients with HFrEF who have tolerated high doses of ACE inhibitor (or ARB) therapy (equivalent to at least enalapril 10 mg twice daily) for at least four weeks. However, some experts recommend sacubitril-valsartan as initial oral therapy (in place of ACE inhibitor or single-agent ARB) once the patient is hemodynamically stable. (See "ACE inhibitors in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: Therapeutic use".)
Beta blocker — Beta blockers reduce mortality when used in the long-term management of patients with HFrEF, but must be used cautiously in patients with decompensated HFrEF because of the potential to worsen acute HF. (See "Use of beta blockers in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction".)
Thus, in patients with acute decompensated HFrEF, we approach the use of beta blockers in the following manner:
●For patients who are already taking a beta blocker, management depends upon the severity of HF decompensation and hemodynamic instability:
•For patients with severe decompensation (eg, severe volume overload and/or requiring inotropic support), we suggest withholding beta blockers.
•For patients with moderate-to-severe decompensation or hypotension, we suggest decreasing or withholding beta blocker therapy.
•For patients with mild decompensation without hypotension or evidence of hypoperfusion, we suggest continuation of beta blocker as tolerated.
Support for continuation of beta blocker therapy with mild decompensation comes from retrospective analyses of patients enrolled in randomized trials [37,38] and reports from the OPTIMIZE-HF program and the Italian Survey on Acute Heart Failure [39,40]. Withdrawal of beta blocker therapy was associated with increased mortality, as compared with continuation of such therapy. However, these retrospective analyses cannot definitively determine whether the discontinuation was the cause of the worse outcome. While the increase in mortality was only partially explained by greater clinical risk factors in the patients withdrawn from beta blocker therapy, such analyses cannot account for all factors. For more severely ill patients, halving of the dose of beta blockers or discontinuation may be necessary.
●For patients who are not already taking a beta blocker, we suggest that a beta blocker not be initiated at the time of presentation with an episode of ADHF. Beta blockers are started at low doses and are generally started later than ACE inhibitors or ARBs, when the patient is euvolemic, usually shortly before discharge. Particular caution is indicated in patients who have required inotropes during their hospitalization.
A small randomized trial and a larger observational study found that initiation of therapy prior to hospital discharge in stable patients improves long-term beta blocker compliance without an increase in side effects or drug discontinuation, so initiation prior to discharge is recommended in stable patients. (See "Use of beta blockers in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction", section on 'Initiation of therapy'.)
Ivabradine — Ivabradine reduces the risk of hospitalization in patients with chronic HFrEF but has no proven role in acute HF.
●For patients who are already taking ivabradine, management depends upon the severity of HF decompensation, heart rate, and hemodynamic instability. If an increased heart rate appears necessary to maintain cardiac output, then we suggest holding ivabradine in patients with severe decompensation.
●For patients who are not already taking ivabradine, we suggest that this agent not be initiated at the time of presentation with an episode of ADHF or with initial oral therapy that generally includes an angiotensin inhibitor and then a beta blocker. We suggest ivabradine for patients with chronic HFrEF (with left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] ≤35 percent) in sinus rhythm with a resting heart rate ≥70 beats per minute (bpm) and who are either on a maximum tolerated dose of beta blocker or have contraindication to beta blocker use. Concurrent treatment should include ACE inhibitor (or ARB), and a mineralocorticoid receptor blocker (if potassium can be appropriately monitored). (See "Use of ivabradine in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction", section on 'Selection of candidates for ivabradine therapy'.)
Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist — In patients already taking an MRA, such therapy can generally be continued during an episode of acute decompensation, with appropriate monitoring of blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes. For patients not taking an MRA who have an indication for therapy, we favor initiation prior to or soon after discharge (as needed to allow careful monitoring of serum potassium levels). In patients in whom an ACE inhibitor or ARB was started or uptitrated shortly prior to discharge, it is recommended that MRA initiation be delayed until the first outpatient visit and evaluation of potassium.
Randomized trials have demonstrated that MRA therapy (spironolactone or eplerenone) reduces mortality when included in long-term management of selected patients with systolic HF who can be carefully monitored for serum potassium and renal function. These include patients who have New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class II HF and an LVEF ≤30 percent; or NYHA functional class III to IV HF and an LVEF ≤35 percent; and patients post-ST elevation MI who are already receiving therapeutic doses of ACE inhibitor, have an LVEF ≤40 percent, and have either symptomatic HF or diabetes mellitus. The serum potassium should be <5.0 meq/L and estimated glomerular filtration rate should be ≥30 mL/min per 1.73 m2. (See "Use of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction", section on 'Our approach'.)
INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS — UpToDate offers two types of patient education materials, "The Basics" and "Beyond the Basics." The Basics patient education pieces are written in plain language, at the 5th to 6th grade reading level, and they answer the four or five key questions a patient might have about a given condition. These articles are best for patients who want a general overview and who prefer short, easy-to-read materials. Beyond the Basics patient education pieces are longer, more sophisticated, and more detailed. These articles are written at the 10th to 12th grade reading level and are best for patients who want in-depth information and are comfortable with some medical jargon.
Here are the patient education articles that are relevant to this topic. We encourage you to print or e-mail these topics to your patients. (You can also locate patient education articles on a variety of subjects by searching on "patient info" and the keyword(s) of interest.)
●Basics topics (see "Patient education: When your lungs fill with fluid (The Basics)")
SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS
●Initial therapy includes supplemental oxygen and assisted ventilation if necessary and a loop diuretic for volume overload (table 1).
•For patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) with respiratory distress, respiratory acidosis, and/or hypoxia with oxygen therapy, we recommend a trial of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) if emergent intubation is not indicated (algorithm 1), no contraindications to NIV exist (table 2), and personnel with experience in NIV are available (Grade 1A). (See 'Supplemental oxygen and assisted ventilation' above and "Noninvasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure in adults", section on 'Cardiogenic pulmonary edema'.)
•Patients with respiratory failure due to ADHF who fail to improve with NIV (within one-half to two hours), do not tolerate NIV, or have contraindications to NIV (table 2) require endotracheal intubation for conventional mechanical ventilation. (See "Overview of mechanical ventilation".)
•In patients with ADHF and fluid overload, we recommend that initial therapy include a loop diuretic (administered intravenously) (Grade 1B). (See 'Diuretics' above.) Dosing is individualized, determined largely by the patient's renal function and prior diuretic exposure. (See 'Diuretic administration' above and 'Renal function' above.)
●Vasodilators may be required to correct elevated filling pressures and/or LV afterload in patients with ADHF. Indications for vasodilator therapy with close hemodynamic monitoring in the setting of ADHF include the following (see 'Approach to vasodilator therapy' above):
•For patients with urgent need for afterload reduction (eg, severe hypertension) or as a temporizing measure in patients with acute aortic regurgitation or acute mitral regurgitation, we suggest balanced vasodilator therapy (eg, nitroprusside) (Grade 2C). (See "Acute mitral regurgitation in adults" and "Acute aortic regurgitation in adults".)
•We suggest use of vasodilator therapy (eg, nitroglycerin) as an adjunct to diuretic therapy for patients without adequate response to diuretics (Grade 2C). (See "Management of refractory heart failure with reduced ejection fraction", section on 'Approach to refractory volume overload'.)
•We suggest vasodilator therapy as a component of therapy for patients with refractory HF and low cardiac output (Grade 2C). (See "Management of refractory heart failure with reduced ejection fraction", section on 'Approach to low cardiac output'.)
●For most patients hospitalized with ADHF, we recommend against treating with nesiritide (Grade 1A). In carefully selected patients with appropriate hemodynamics (including absence of hypotension or cardiogenic shock) who remain symptomatic despite routine therapy, a trial of nesiritide may be helpful as an alternative to other vasodilator therapy (nitroglycerin or nitroprusside). Nesiritide has a longer effective half-life than nitroglycerin or nitroprusside, so side effects such as hypotension may persist longer. (See "Nesiritide in the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure", section on 'Use' and 'Nesiritide' above.)
●Patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) presenting with hypotension should not receive inotropes and may require a vasopressor in addition to diuretic therapy. Patients who develop hypotension with dynamic left ventricular outflow obstruction are treated with beta blocker therapy and gentle hydration if pulmonary edema is not present. (See 'Approach to hypotension' above.)
●In patients with HFpEF, long-term therapy is based largely on associated conditions (eg, hypertension or edema) since trial data are limited with no established survival benefit from any specific therapy. Management of chronic medications (such an antihypertensive agents) during an ADHF episode depends upon the patient’s hemodynamic condition. (See 'Approach to long-term therapy for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction' above and "Treatment and prognosis of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction".)
●In patients with chronic HFrEF, the long-term use of angiotensin inhibitor (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, angiotensin II receptor blocker, or angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor), beta blockers, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist reduces mortality. Management of these agents during an ADHF episode depends upon whether the patient was already taking these medications and the patient’s hemodynamic condition during the acute episode. (See 'Approach to long-term therapy for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction' above and "Overview of the therapy of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction".)
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