Medline ® Abstracts for References 123,124
of 'Treatment and prognosis of IgA nephropathy'
Steroid and cyclophosphamide therapy for IgA nephropathy associated with crescenteric change: an effective treatment.
McIntyre CW, Fluck RJ, Lambie SH
Clin Nephrol. 2001;56(3):193.
BACKGROUND: IgA nephropathy is the most common form of idiopathic glomerulonephritis. There is no current consensus on treatment for this condition. We report on the effect of immunosuppression with corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide for the treatment of IgA nephropathy associated with crescenteric change.
METHODS: The effect of oral prednisolone (0.8 mg/kg initially, reducing to 0.4 mg/kg after 4 weeks) and cyclophosphamide (1.5 mg/kg) given until a plateau of response was obtained was studied in 9 patients with IgA nephropathy associated with severe inflammatory change and crescents. The initial diagnostic renal biopsies of these patients revealed 25-70% of the glomeruli effected with active cellular crescents. When response to therapy, plateaued cyclophosphamide was discontinued and prednisolone reduced from 0.4 mg/kg. Follow-up renal biopsy was performed in 8 of the 9 patients. Patients were maintained on prednisolone (5- 7.5 mg) and azathioprine (1 mg/kg) for further 2 years.
RESULTS: The mean time until discontinuation of cyclophosphamide was 17.8 weeks (+/-1.23, range 12-25 weeks). There were no serious complications of therapy. There was an improvement in renal function in all patients with serum creatinine falling from a mean of 149.6+/-16.5, range 81-227 micromol/l to 116.4+/-8.6, range 80-158 micromol/l, p=0.01. Creatinine clearance improved from a mean of 57.1+/-9.9, range 21-104 ml/min to 87.2+/-10.1, range 39-125 ml/min, p=0.004. 24-hour urinary total protein fell over the same time m period from a mean of 4.54+/-1.1, range 1.0-11.27 g to 1.2+/-0.27, range 0.01-2.65 g, p=0.004. There were no significant differences in blood pressure during this time. Repeat renal biopsies showed significant degrees of histological improvement with healing of crescents and a reduction in acute inflammatory change in all except one patient. The mean period of follow-up after cessation of cyclophosphamide was 17.4+/-2.8 months, range 10-36 months. There was no significant change over this period in serum creatinine, creatinine clearance or urinary protein losses.
CONCLUSION: These data suggest that IgA nephropathy associated with severe inflammatory and crescenteric change can be effectively and safely treated with a low-cost regime based on oral corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide tailored to a plateau of treatment response in individual patients.
Department of Renal Medicine, Derby City General Hospital, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org
Crescentic, proliferative IgA nephropathy: clinical and histological response to methylprednisolone and intravenous cyclophosphamide.
Tumlin JA, Lohavichan V, Hennigar R
Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2003;18(7):1321.
BACKGROUND: IgA nephropathy is an immune-complex glomerulopathy that can result in capillary or extra-capillary proliferation. Previous attempts to correlate specific histological findings including cellular crescents or endocapillary proliferation, with clinical outcomes, have produced conflicting results.
METHODS: We conducted a prospective open-labelled trial of 12 patients with crescentic, proliferative IgA nephropathy and clinically progressive disease and treated them with pulse steroids and intravenous cyclophosphamide. Therapy included pulse solumedrol at 15 mg/kg/day for 3 days, followed by monthly intravenous cyclophosphamide at 0.5 g/m(2) body surface area for 6 months. Clinically significant proteinuria (>1.0 g/24 h) was present in all patients, while nephrotic-range proteinuria (>3.0 g/24 h) was observed in eight of 12 patients. All patients were hypertensive (BP>140/90 mmHg).
RESULTS: After 6 months of treatment, the mean serum creatinine was reduced from a maximum of 2.65+/-0.39 to 1.51+/-0.10 mg/dl (P<0.03), while proteinuria was reduced from 4.04 to 1.35 g/24 h (P<0.01). The mean slope of 1/serum creatinine increased from -0.0398+/-0.02 to 0.0076+/-0.01 after 6 months of therapy, but this trend did not reach statistical significance (P<0.08). A repeat kidney biopsy was performed in all treated patients. Endocapillary proliferation, cellular crescents and karyorrhexis were eliminated in all 12 patients after 6 months of therapy, while interstitial fibrosis and tubule dropout remained unchanged. To determine the long-term efficacy of the treatment, treated patients were compared to 12 historical controls matched for severity of IgA on initial biopsy. After 36 months, the rate of end-stage renal disease in the treated group was lower (1/12) than in the historical controls (5/12).
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that steroids and intravenous cyclophosphamide reduce proliferative lesions, reduce proteinuria and stabilize renal function in patients with crescentic IgA nephropathy.
Division of Nephrology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. email@example.com