Medline ® Abstracts for References 37-40
of 'Treatment and outcome of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy'
Effect of acupressure on nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. A randomized, placebo-controlled, pilot study.
Werntoft E, Dykes AK
J Reprod Med. 2001;46(9):835.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the antiemetic effect of acupressure at the Neiguan point (P6) in a group of healthy women with normal pregnancy and nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP) with a similar group receiving acupressure at a placebo point and another, similar group not receiving any treatment.
STUDY DESIGN: A randomized, placebo-controlled, pilot study involving 60 women.
RESULTS: It is possible to reduce NVP significantly with acupressure at P6 as compared to acupressure at a placebo point or no treatment at all in healthy women with normal pregnancies. Relief from nausea appeared one day after starting treatment in both the P6 and placebo groups but lasted for only six days in the placebo group. The P6 group, however, experienced significantly less nausea after 14 days as compared to the other two groups.
CONCLUSION: This study involved 60 healthy women with normal pregnancy and suffering from NVP. According to the results, in healthy women with normal pregnancy it is possible to reduce NVP significantly at P6 as compared to acupressure at a placebo point and to no treatment.
Department of Nursing, Unit of Caring Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden. firstname.lastname@example.org
Effect of acupuncture on nausea of pregnancy: a randomized, controlled trial.
Knight B, Mudge C, Openshaw S, White A, Hart A
Obstet Gynecol. 2001;97(2):184.
OBJECTIVE: To compare acupuncture with sham (placebo) acupuncture for treatment of nausea of pregnancy.
METHODS: In a subject- and observer-masked, randomized, controlled trial in the maternity unit at Exeter Hospital, we gave 55 women between 6 and 10 weeks' gestation genuine, traditional-style acupuncture or sham treatment with a cocktail stick on three or four occasions over 3 weeks. The main outcome measure was nausea score, as determined by subject report on a visual analogue scale in a daily diary. Anxiety and depression also were assessed.
RESULTS: Nausea scores decreased from a median of 85.5 (interquartile range 71.25-89.75) to 47.5 (interquartile range 29.25-69.5) in the acupuncture group and from 87.0 (interquartile range 73.0-90.0) to 48.0 (interquartile range 14.0-80.0) in the sham treatment group. There was strong evidence of a time effect (P<.001) but no evidence of a group effect (P =.9) or a group-time interaction (P =.8). Similarly, there was evidence of time effects in scores for anxiety and depression but no group differences. The study had a power of 95% to detect significant differences in nausea scores.
CONCLUSION: Acupuncture was as effective in treating nausea of pregnancy as a sham procedure.
Royal Devon and Exeter Healthcare National Health Service Trust, Exeter, United Kingdom. email@example.com
P6 acupressure reduces morning sickness.
Dundee JW, Sourial FB, Ghaly RG, Bell PF
J R Soc Med. 1988;81(8):456.
A prospective study was designed to test the efficacy of pressure at the P6 (Neiguan) acupuncture point, in preventing morning sickness. Three groups of patients in early pregnancy recorded the severity and frequency of sickness over a period of 4 consecutive days following daily pressure at P6 point, pressure at a point near the right elbow and with no treatment. Troublesome sickness was significantly less in both the genuine (23/119) and dummy (41/112) pressure groups as compared with the control series (67/119). When the data are adversely 'weighted' to compensate for the lower incidence of fully completed returns in the active treatment groups, only the P6 group show a significant reduction in sickness. No side effects occurred in either group and while anticipation of benefit may offer a partial explanation for the findings, pressure at the Neiguan point appears to have a specific therapeutic effect.
Department of Anaesthetics, Queen's University, Belfast.
Efficacy of P6 acupressure in the treatment of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy.
O'Brien B, Relyea MJ, Taerum T
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1996;174(2):708.
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate the efficacy of P6 acupressure in reducing or relieving symptoms of nausea with or without vomiting and retching during pregnancy.
STUDY DESIGN: Symptomatic pregnant volunteers (n=161) participated in a 7-day community-based clinical trial. All participants were assigned to one of three groups (i.e., P6 acupressure, placebo [acupressure bands inappropriately placed], or control) on the basis of a process of blocked randomization. Data were analyzed by error bar charts and analysis of variance of difference scores.
RESULTS: Of 161 women, 149 (92.5%) completed the protocol. Irrespective of group assignment, participants reported significant decreases in nausea (p<0.0009) and vomiting or retching (p<0.0009). However, there was no differential treatment effect as a result of acupressure.
CONCLUSION: There was no apparent medical benefit from the use of P6 acupressure. Our findings differ from other recently published studies that did not include a control group.
Faculty of Nursing, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.