Medline ® Abstracts for References 164-166
of 'Treatment and outcome of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy'
The effect of periconceptional multivitamin-mineral supplementation on vertigo, nausea and vomiting in the first trimester of pregnancy.
Czeizel AE, Dudas I, Fritz G, Técsöi A, Hanck A, Kunovits G
Arch Gynecol Obstet. 1992;251(4):181.
WHO Collaborating Centre for the Community Control of Hereditary Diseases, Budapest, Hungary.
Relationship between vitamin use, smoking, and nausea and vomiting of pregnancy.
Källén B, Lundberg G, Aberg A
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2003;82(10):916.
BACKGROUND: Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) is a common complaint but risk factors for NVP are not well characterized.
METHODS: Occurrence of NVP was studied by questionnaires given to pregnant women at their first visit to the antenatal care unit and were returned around gestational week 28.
RESULTS: Analysis of 3675 completed questionnaires was made. Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy was reported by 79% of the women, approximately half of which had been vomiting. Various therapies (drugs, acupuncture, acupressure) were tried by 18% of the women with NVP, of which the majority used drugs, most notably antihistamines (specifically meclozine). Hospitalization occurred in 1% of all women. Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy caused 28% of all sick-leaves during the first 28 weeks of pregnancy. Low maternal age and parity 1+ independently increased the risk for NVP. Smoking before pregnancy and using vitamins in early pregnancy were associated with a decreased risk for NVP. Women working outside the home had a lower rate of NVP than housewives and women out of work.
CONCLUSIONS: Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy is a common complaint with a significant impact on leave of absence from work. The study identifies a number of factors that are related to the occurrence of NVP and that may give hints on the etiology of the condition.
Tornblad Institute, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden. firstname.lastname@example.org
Prevalence and severity of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy and effect of vitamin supplementation.
Emelianova S, Mazzotta P, Einarson A, Koren G
Clin Invest Med. 1999;22(3):106.
OBJECTIVE: Although nausea and vomiting of pregnancy is the most common medical condition during pregnancy, there are many unanswered questions regarding its cause, epidemiologic features and optimal management. The objectives of this study were to ascertain the prevalence of nausea and vomiting in a sample of Canadian women, to characterize the distribution of their severity and to investigate the role of vitamin B6 deficiency in their etiology.
DESIGN: Prospective study.
SETTING: Antenatal counselling service for pregnant women.
PATIENTS: Three cohorts of women: a prospective, population-based cohort of 193 women, to estimate the rate and severity of nausea and vomiting (cohort A); a cohort of 555 women who sought advice for nausea with or without vomiting, to study the correlation between the maximal daily number of episodes of vomiting and maximal weight loss (cohort B); and a prospective cohort of 301 women who reported vomiting, to correlate vitamin supplementation with vomiting (cohort C).
INTERVENTIONS: All 3 cohorts were interviewed during the counselling session, and cohort B was followed up prospectively.
OUTCOME MEASURES: Frequency of nausea and vomiting, weight loss, maximal number of daily episodes of vomiting, rate of multivitamin supplementation.
RESULTS: Overall, 67% of the women in cohort A reported experiencing nausea or vomiting, or both; 22% reported vomiting, and 9% experienced weight loss. In cohort B there was a significant correlation between the maximal number of daily episodes of vomiting and maximal weight loss, although there was wide variation (r2 = 0.25, p<0.001). There was a highly significant correlation between the number of daily vomiting episodes and mean weight loss (r2 = 0.99). In cohort C, vomiting was significantly associated with lack of supplementation with multivitamins before 6 weeks' gestation (p = 0.002).
CONCLUSIONS: The relation between number of daily vomiting episodes and mean weight loss may serve as a clinical tool to assess the severity of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy and the success of anti-emetics and rehydration regimens. Further study is needed to elucidate the biologic basis of the observed association between vomiting and lack of multivitamin supplementation in early pregnancy.
Department of Pediatrics, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ont.