Medline ® Abstracts for References 159,160
of 'Treatment and outcome of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy'
Hyperemesis gravidarum and maternal cancer risk, a Scandinavian nested case-control study.
Vandraas KF, Grjibovski AM, Støer NC, Troisi R, Stephansson O, Ording AG, Vangen S, Grotmol T, VikanesÅV
Int J Cancer. 2015;137(5):1209. Epub 2015 Feb 20.
Reproductive factors have been shown to influence cancer risk. Several pathological conditions during pregnancy have also been associated with subsequent altered cancer risk in the mother. Hyperemesis gravidarum (hyperemesis) is an early pregnancy condition characterized by severe nausea and vomiting resulting in weight loss and metabolic disturbances. Studies have reported associations between hyperemesis and cancer, but results are inconsistent. In this nested case-control study we linked the population-based medical birth registries and cancer registries in Norway, Sweden and Denmark in order to examine overall cancer risk and risk of specific cancer types in women with a history of hyperemesis, using conditional logistic regression. In total, 168,501 cases of cancer in addition to up to 10 cancer-free controls per case were randomly sampled, matched on year of birth and birth registry (n = 1,721,626). Hyperemesis was defined through the International Classification of Diseases. Analyses were adjusted for potential confounders. Hyperemesis was inversely associated with overall cancer risk with adjusted relative risk (aRR) of 0.93 (95% CI: 0.88-0.99), with cancer in the lungs (aRR: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.44-0.81), cervix (aRR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.49-0.91) and rectum (aRR: 0.48, 95% CI: 0.29-0.78). Thyroid cancer was positivelyassociated with hyperemesis (aRR 1.45, 95% CI: 1.06-1.99) and risk increased with more than one hyperemetic pregnancy (aRR 1.80, 95% CI: 1.23-2.63). Hormonal factors, in particular human chorionic gonadotropin, are likely to be involved in mediating these effects. This study is the first to systematically address these associations and provides valuable knowledge on potential long-term consequences of hyperemesis.
Norwegian Advisory Unit for Women'S Health, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
Hyperemesis gravidarum and long-term mortality: a population-based cohort study.
Fossum S, VikanesÅV, NaessØ, Vos L, Grotmol T, Halvorsen S
BJOG. 2017;124(7):1080. Epub 2016 Dec 15.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether exposure to hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is associated with increased maternal long-term mortality.
DESIGN: Population-based cohort study.
SETTING: Medical Birth Registry of Norway (1967-2002) linked to the Cause of Death Registry.
POPULATION: Women in Norway with singleton births in the period 1967-2002, with and without HG. Women were followed until 2009 or death.
METHODS: Cox proportional hazard regression model was applied to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interval (CI).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was all-cause mortality during follow up. Secondary outcomes were cause-specific mortality (cardiovascular mortality, deaths due to cancer, external causes or mental and behavioural disorders).
RESULTS: Of 999 161 women with singleton births, 13 397 (1.3%) experienced HG. During a median follow up of 26 years (25 902 036 person-years), 43 470 women died (4.4%). Women exposed to HG had a lower risk of long-term all-cause mortality compared with women without HG (crude HR 0.82; 95% CI 0.75-0.90). When adjusting for confounders, this reduction was no longer significant (adjusted HR 0.92; 95% CI 0.84-1.01). Women exposed to HG had a similar risk of cardiovascular death as women not exposed (adjusted HR 1.04; 95% CI 0.83-1.29), but a lower long-term risk of death from cancer (adjusted HR 0.86; 95% CI 0.75-0.98).
CONCLUSION: In this large population-based cohort study, HG was not associated with an increased risk of long-term all-cause mortality. Women exposed to HG had no increase in mortality due to cardiovascular disease, but had a reduced risk of death from cancer.
TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Population-based cohort study: Hyperemesis was not associated with an increased risk of long-term mortality.
Department of Cardiology, Oslo University Hospital Ulleval, Oslo, Norway.