Medline ® Abstracts for References 15,48,49
of 'Treatment and outcome of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy'
Practice Bulletin No. 153: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy.
Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Sep;126(3):e12-24.
Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy is a common condition that affects the health of the pregnant woman and her fetus. It can diminish the woman's quality of life and also significantly contributes to health care costs and time lost from work (). Because "morning sickness" is common in early pregnancy, the presence of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy may be minimized by obstetricians, other obstetric providers, and pregnant women and, thus, undertreated (). Furthermore, some women do not seek treatment because of concerns about safety of medications (). Once nausea and vomiting of pregnancy progresses, it can become more difficult to control symptoms; treatment in the early stages may prevent more serious complications, including hospitalization (). Mild cases of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy may be resolved with lifestyle and dietary changes, and safe and effective treatments are available for more severe cases. The woman's perception of the severity of her symptoms plays a critical role in the decision of whether, when, and how to treat nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. In addition, nausea and vomiting of pregnancy should be distinguished from nausea and vomiting related to other causes. The purpose of this document is to review the best available evidence about the diagnosis and management of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy.
Einarson, A, Maltepe, C, Boskovic, R, Koren, G. Treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: An updated algorithm. http://www.motherisk.org/documents/Revised_NVP_Algorithm.pdf (Accessed on August 25, 2011).
no abstract available
Treatment options for nausea and vomiting during pregnancy.
Badell ML, Ramin SM, Smith JA
Nausea and vomiting, common symptoms during pregnancy, often are regarded as an unpleasant but normal part of pregnancy during the first and early second trimesters. Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) occurs in approximately 75-80% of pregnant women. The exact etiology and pathogenesis of NVP are poorly understood and are most likely multifactorial. Some theories for the etiology of NVP are psychological predisposition, evolutionary adaptation, hormonal stimuli, and Helicobacter pylori infection. Treatment ranges from dietary and lifestyle changes to vitamins, antiemetics, and hospitalization for intravenous therapy. Treatment generally begins with nonpharmacologic interventions; if symptoms do not improve, drug therapy is added. Although NVP has been associated with a positive pregnancy outcome, the symptoms can significantly affect a woman's life, both personally and professionally. Given the substantial health care costs, as well as indirect costs, and the potential decrease in quality of life due to NVP, providers need to acknowledge the impact of NVP and provide appropriate treatment.
Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston Medical School, Houston, Texas 77230-1439, USA.