Traumatic hyphema: Clinical features and diagnosis
- Christopher M Andreoli, MD
Christopher M Andreoli, MD
- Clinical Instructor in Ophthalmology
- Harvard Medical School
- Matthew F Gardiner, MD
Matthew F Gardiner, MD
- Assistant Professor of Ophthalmology
- Harvard Medical School
- Section Editors
- Richard G Bachur, MD
Richard G Bachur, MD
- Section Editor — Pediatric Trauma
- Associate Professor of Pediatrics
- Harvard Medical School
- Jonathan Trobe, MD
Jonathan Trobe, MD
- Section Editor — Ophthalmology
- Professor of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences
- Professor of Neurology
- University of Michigan Kellogg Eye Center
- Maria E Moreira, MD
Maria E Moreira, MD
- Section Editor — Adult Trauma
- Associate Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine
- University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine
- Residency Program Director
- Denver Health Residency in Emergency Medicine
- Deputy Editor
- James F Wiley, II, MD, MPH
James F Wiley, II, MD, MPH
- Senior Deputy Editor — Adult and Pediatric Emergency Medicine
- Senior Deputy Editor — Primary Care Sports Medicine (Adolescents and Adults)
- Professor of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine/Traumatology
- University of Connecticut School of Medicine
Traumatic hyphema, or blood in the anterior chamber, is a common complication of blunt or penetrating injury to the eye and can result in permanent vision loss. The goals of initial assessment include recognition and characterization of the hyphema and identification of associated orbital and ocular injuries. If ruptured globe is suspected, then emergent consultation with an ophthalmologist is critical to ensure preservation of vision. In addition, optimal outcome following a hyphema depends on early ophthalmologic intervention focused on prevention of rebleeding and avoidance of intraocular hypertension. In most instances, patients recover with vision intact. Vision loss is more likely in patients with large hyphemas, sickle hemoglobinopathy or trait, or bleeding tendency.
This review covers the clinical features and diagnosis of traumatic hyphema. The management of traumatic hyphemas is discussed separately. (See "Traumatic hyphema: Management".)
●Hyphema refers to grossly visible blood in the anterior chamber of the eye (picture 1).
●Microhyphema describes dispersed red blood cells in the anterior chamber that do not layer out to form a gross fluid level (figure 1).
Incidence — The annual incidence of traumatic hyphema has been estimated at 12 injuries per 100,000 population, with males being affected three to five times more frequently than females [1-4]. Up to 70 percent of traumatic hyphemas occur in children, with a peak incidence between 10 and 20 years of age [1,3,4].
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- Mechanism of injury
- Traumatic hyphema
- Spontaneous hyphema
- Predisposing conditions
- CLINICAL FEATURES
- Physical examination
- - Precautions and approach
- - Findings of hyphema
- - Injury to adjacent structures
- Open globe
- Corneal abrasion
- Angle recession
- Laboratory testing
- Diagnostic imaging