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Transcatheter aortic valve implantation: Periprocedural management

Author
Stephen JD Brecker, MD, FRCP, FESC, FACC
Section Editors
Jeroen J Bax, MD, PhD
Donald Cutlip, MD
Deputy Editor
Susan B Yeon, MD, JD, FACC

INTRODUCTION

Aortic valve replacement (AVR) has been the mainstay of treatment of symptomatic severe aortic stenosis (AS). The role of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI; also known as transcatheter aortic valve replacement or TAVR) as an alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) is evolving. A multidisciplinary team approach is recommended in approaching patients with symptomatic AS.  

This topic will review periprocedural management of TAVI [1]. Indications for aortic valve replacement, surgical aortic valve replacement, estimating the risk of aortic valve surgery, medical therapy of symptomatic AS, and percutaneous aortic valvuloplasty are discussed separately. (See "Indications for valve replacement in aortic stenosis in adults" and "Choice of prosthetic heart valve for surgical replacement" and "Estimating the mortality risk of valvular surgery" and "Medical management of symptomatic aortic stenosis" and "Percutaneous balloon aortic valvotomy".)

PREPROCEDURAL CONSIDERATIONS

Candidates for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) should be fully evaluated for symptoms, severity of their aortic stenosis and comorbid pathologies. The indication for valve intervention (SAVR or TAVI) and choice of therapy based upon potential risks and benefits of treatment options should be discussed at a multidisciplinary heart team meeting. This should comprise interventional and noninterventional cardiologists, cardiac surgeons, imaging cardiologists, and possibly critical care/respiratory physicians, etc. Potential risk factors such as depressed left ventricular ejection fraction, coronary artery disease, kidney disease [2], and prior stroke and pulmonary disease should be considered. Potential access issues and likely delivery approach should be discussed since this may impact the risk-benefit analysis of treatment options. (See "Indications for valve replacement in aortic stenosis in adults" and "Transcatheter aortic valve implantation: Indications and outcomes".)

Preprocedural testing should include routine blood tests (including complete blood count, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine), electrocardiogram, echocardiography (and may require stress echocardiography if low gradient aortic stenosis is being assessed), and coronary angiography. Comprehensive computed tomography angiography to assess aortic annulus geometry and peripheral access is now considered the standard of care in assessing TAVI candidates. Preprocedural imaging is discussed in detail separately. (See "Imaging for transcatheter aortic valve implantation", section on 'Preprocedural assessment' and "Low flow, low gradient severe aortic stenosis".)

PROCEDURAL CONSIDERATIONS

General management and monitoring — Routine antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended for all patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) prior to surgical incision or vascular access to reduce the risk of wound infection and endocarditis [2].

         

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Literature review current through: Nov 2016. | This topic last updated: Wed Nov 16 00:00:00 GMT 2016.
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References
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