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Tracheobronchitis associated with tracheostomy tubes and endotracheal intubation in children

Charles R Woods, MD, MS
Section Editors
Glenn C Isaacson, MD, FAAP
Sheldon L Kaplan, MD
Deputy Editor
Carrie Armsby, MD, MPH


Children who require artificial airways (ie, tracheostomy for the management of chronic respiratory insufficiency or endotracheal intubation for an acute critical illness) are at increased risk for bacterial tracheopulmonary infections. Infections in these patients occur due to bacterial colonization of the artificial airway and mucosal injuries related to airway cannulation [1]. Tracheobronchitis in this setting is generally characterized by clinical signs of respiratory tract infection (eg, fever, cough, increased sputum production) without radiographic evidence of pneumonia.

Tracheal infections associated with tracheostomy tubes and endotracheal intubation in children will be discussed here. The clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of bacterial tracheitis in children and the diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia are discussed separately:

(See "Bacterial tracheitis in children: Clinical features and diagnosis".)

(See "Bacterial tracheitis in children: Treatment and prevention".)

(See "Clinical presentation and diagnostic evaluation of ventilator-associated pneumonia".)

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Literature review current through: Nov 2017. | This topic last updated: Jul 31, 2015.
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