Medline ® Abstract for Reference 57
of 'Toxicities associated with checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy'
Incidence of Programmed Cell Death 1 Inhibitor-Related Pneumonitis in Patients With Advanced Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
Nishino M, Giobbie-Hurder A, Hatabu H, Ramaiya NH, Hodi FS
JAMA Oncol. 2016;2(12):1607.
Importance: Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) inhibitor-related pneumonitis is a rare but clinically serious and potentially life-threatening adverse event. Little is known about its incidence across different tumor types and treatment regimens.
Objective: To compare the incidence of PD-1 inhibitor-related pneumonitis among different tumor types and therapeutic regimens.
Data Sources: A PubMed search through November 10, 2015, and a review of references from relevant articles. For the PubMed search, the following keywords or corresponding Medical Subject Heading terms were used: nivolumab, pembrolizumab, and PD-1 inhibitor.
Study Selection: Twenty-six original articles of PD-1 inhibitor trial results were identified. Among them, 20 studies of melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), or renal cell carcinoma (RCC) were eligible for a meta-analysis.
Data Extraction and Synthesis: The data were extracted by 1 primary reviewer and then independently reviewed by 2 secondary reviewers following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Comparisons of the incidence were based on marginal, exact generalized linear models with generalized estimating equations.
Main Outcomes and Measures: Incidence of all-grade and grade 3 or higher pneumonitis and pneumonitis-related deaths.
Results: Twenty studies of single-tumor-type trials of PD-1 inhibitor (12 melanoma studies, 5 NSCLC studies, and 3 RCC studies) (a total of 4496 unique patients) were included in the meta-analysis. The overall incidence of pneumonitis during PD-1 inhibitor monotherapy was 2.7% (95% CI, 1.9%-3.6%) for all-grade and 0.8% (95% CI, 0.4%-1.2%) for grade 3 or higher pneumonitis. The incidence was higher in NSCLC for all-grade (4.1% vs 1.6%; P = .002) and grade 3 or higher pneumonitis (1.8% vs 0.2%; P < .001) compared with melanoma. The incidence in RCC was higher than in melanoma for all-grade pneumonitis (4.1% vs 1.6%; P < .001) but not for grade 3 or higher pneumonitis. Four pneumonitis-related deaths were observed in patients with NSCLC in the monotherapy group. Pneumonitis was more frequent during combination therapy than monotherapy for all-grade (6.6% vs 1.6%; P < .001) and grade 3 or higher pneumonitis (1.5% vs 0.2%; P = .001) in melanoma, with 1 pneumonitis-related death during combination therapy. Multivariable analyses demonstrated higher odds of pneumonitis in NSCLC for all-grade (odds ratio [OR], 1.43; 95% CI, 1.08-1.89; P = .005) and grade 3 or higher pneumonitis (OR, 2.85; 95% CI, 1.60-5.08; P < .001) and in RCC for all-grade pneumonitis (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.32-1.92; P < .001) compared with melanoma. The combination therapy had significantly higher odds than monotherapy for all-grade (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.69-2.50; P < .001) and grade 3 or higher pneumonitis (OR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.79- 4.35; P < .001).
Conclusions and Relevance: The incidence of PD-1 inhibitor-related pneumonitis was higher in NSCLC and RCC and during combination therapy. These findings contribute to enhance awareness among clinicians and support further investigations to meet the clinical needs.
Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts.