Medline ® Abstracts for References 48,49
of 'Toxicities associated with checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy'
Phase III randomized clinical trial comparing tremelimumab with standard-of-care chemotherapy in patients with advanced melanoma.
Ribas A, Kefford R, Marshall MA, Punt CJ, Haanen JB, Marmol M, Garbe C, Gogas H, Schachter J, Linette G, Lorigan P, Kendra KL, Maio M, Trefzer U, Smylie M, McArthur GA, Dreno B, Nathan PD, Mackiewicz J, Kirkwood JM, Gomez-Navarro J, Huang B, Pavlov D, Hauschild A
J Clin Oncol. 2013;31(5):616. Epub 2013 Jan 7.
PURPOSE: In phase I/II trials, the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4-blocking monoclonal antibody tremelimumab induced durable responses in a subset of patients with advanced melanoma. This phase III study evaluated overall survival (OS) and other safety and efficacy end points in patients with advanced melanoma treated with tremelimumab or standard-of-care chemotherapy.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with treatment-naive, unresectable stage IIIc or IV melanoma were randomly assigned at a ratio of one to one to tremelimumab (15 mg/kg once every 90 days) or physician's choice of standard-of-care chemotherapy (temozolomide or dacarbazine).
RESULTS: In all, 655 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned. The test statistic crossed the prespecified futility boundary at second interim analysis after 340 deaths, but survival follow-up continued. At final analysis with 534 events, median OS by intent to treat was 12.6 months (95% CI, 10.8 to 14.3) for tremelimumab and 10.7 months (95% CI, 9.36 to 11.96) for chemotherapy (hazard ratio, 0.88; P = .127). Objective response rates were similar in the two arms: 10.7% in the tremelimumab arm and 9.8% in the chemotherapy arm. However, response duration (measured from date of random assignment) was significantly longer after tremelimumab (35.8 v 13.7 months; P = .0011). Diarrhea, pruritus, and rash were the most common treatment-related adverse events in the tremelimumab arm; 7.4% had endocrine toxicities. Seven deaths in the tremelimumab arm and one in the chemotherapy arm were considered treatment related by either investigators or sponsor.
CONCLUSION: This study failed to demonstrate a statistically significant survival advantage of treatment with tremelimumab over standard-of-care chemotherapy in first-line treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma.
Division of Hematology-Oncology, 11-934 Factor Building, UCLA Medical Center, 10833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1782, USA. email@example.com
Elevated rates of transaminitis during ipilimumab therapy for metastatic melanoma.
Bernardo SG, Moskalenko M, Pan M, Shah S, Sidhu HK, Sicular S, Harcharik S, Chang R, Friedlander P, Saenger YM
Melanoma Res. 2013;23(1):47.
Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer. Ipilimumab, a novel immunotherapy, is the first treatment shown to improve survival in patients with metastatic melanoma in large randomized controlled studies. The most concerning side effects reported in clinical studies of ipilimumab fall into the category of immune-related adverse events, which include enterocolitis, dermatitis, thyroiditis, hepatitis, hypophysitis, uveitis, and others. During the course of routine clinical care at Mount Sinai Medical Center, frequent hepatotoxicity was noted when ipilimumab was administered at a dose of 3 mg/kg according to Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines. To better characterize these adverse events, we conducted a retrospective review of the first 11 patients with metastatic melanoma treated with ipilimumab at the Mount Sinai Medical Center after FDA approval. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation, as defined by the National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, each occurred in six of 11 cases (≥grade 1), a notably higher frequency than could be expected on the basis of the FDA licensing study where elevations were reported in 0.8 and 1.5% of patients for AST and ALT, respectively. Grade 3 elevations in AST occurred in three of 11 patients as compared with 0% in the licensing trial.All cases of transaminitis resolved when ipilimumab was temporarily withheld without administration of immunosuppressive medication. During routine clinical care of late-stage melanoma patients with ipilimumab, physicians should monitor patients closely for hepatotoxicity and be aware that toxicity rates may differ across populations during ipilimumab therapy.
Departments of Dermatology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA.