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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 42

of 'Toxicities associated with checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy'

42
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A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase II study comparing the tolerability and efficacy of ipilimumab administered with or without prophylactic budesonide in patients with unresectable stage III or IV melanoma.
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Weber J, Thompson JA, Hamid O, Minor D, Amin A, Ron I, Ridolfi R, Assi H, Maraveyas A, Berman D, Siegel J, O'Day SJ
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Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15(17):5591. Epub 2009 Aug 11.
 
PURPOSE: Diarrhea (with or without colitis) is an immune-related adverse event (irAE) associated with ipilimumab. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, multinational phase II trial was conducted to determine whether prophylactic budesonide (Entocort EC), a nonabsorbed oral steroid, reduced the rate of grade>or=2 diarrhea in ipilimumab-treated patients with advanced melanoma.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Previously treated and treatment-naïve patients (N = 115) with unresectable stage III or IV melanoma received open-label ipilimumab (10 mg/kg every 3 weeks for four doses) with daily blinded budesonide (group A) or placebo (group B) through week 16. The first scheduled tumor evaluation was at week 12; eligible patients received maintenance treatment starting at week 24. Diarrhea was assessed using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) 3.0. Patients kept a diary describing their bowel habits.
RESULTS: Budesonide did not affect the rate of grade>or=2 diarrhea, which occurred in 32.7% and 35.0% of patients in groups A and B, respectively. There were no bowel perforations or treatment-related deaths. Best overall response rates were 12.1% in group A and 15.8% in group B, with a median overall survival of 17.7 and 19.3 months, respectively. Within each group, the disease control rate was higher in patients with grade 3 to 4 irAEs than in patients with grade 0 to 2 irAEs, although many patients with grade 1 to 2 irAEs experienced clinical benefit. Novel patterns of response to ipilimumab were observed.
CONCLUSIONS: Ipilimumab shows activity in advanced melanoma, with encouraging survival and manageable adverse events. Budesonide should not be used prophylactically for grade>or=2 diarrhea associated with ipilimumab therapy.
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Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida 33612, USA. Jeffrey.Weber@moffitt.org
PMID