Medline ® Abstracts for References 30,35,36
of 'Toxicities associated with checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy'
Immune-related alopecia (areata and universalis) in cancer patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors.
Zarbo A, Belum VR, Sibaud V, Oudard S, Postow MA, Hsieh JJ, Motzer RJ, Busam KJ, Lacouture ME
Br J Dermatol. 2016;
Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein-4, programmed cell death protein and programmed cell death protein ligand 1 monoclonal antibodies (immune checkpoint inhibitors), are used to treat various malignancies. Their mechanism of action involves the inhibition of negative regulators of immune activation, resulting in immune-related adverse events (irAEs) including endocrinopathies, pneumonitis, colitis, hepatitis and dermatological events. Dermatological irAEs include maculopapular rash, pruritus, vitiligo, blistering disorders, mucocutaneous lichenoid eruptions, rosacea and the exacerbation of psoriasis. Alopecia secondary to immune checkpoint inhibitors has been reported in 1·0-2·0% of treated patients. Our objective is to characterize for the first time the clinicopathology of patients with alopecia areata (AA) secondary to immune checkpoint inhibitors, including the first report of anti-PD-L1 therapy-induced AA, and review of the literature. Four cases of patients who developed partial or complete alopecia during treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors for underlying cancer were identified from our clinics. Methods include the review of the history and clinicopathologic features. Three patients (75%) had AA and one had universalis. Two patients had a resolution after topical, oral or intralesional therapies and one had a resolution after immunotherapy was discontinued; all regrown hair exhibited poliosis. One of the four patients had coincident onychodystrophy. This report describes a series of four patients who developed partial or complete alopecia (i.e. areata and universalis) during treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitor therapies for cancer. The recognition and management of hair-related irAEs are important for pretherapy counselling and interventions that contribute to maintaining optimal health-related quality of life in patients.
Department of Dermatology and Transitional Year Program, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI, 48202, U.S.A.
Survival, durable tumor remission, and long-term safety in patients with advanced melanoma receiving nivolumab.
Topalian SL, Sznol M, McDermott DF, Kluger HM, Carvajal RD, Sharfman WH, Brahmer JR, Lawrence DP, Atkins MB, Powderly JD, Leming PD, Lipson EJ, Puzanov I, Smith DC, Taube JM, Wigginton JM, Kollia GD, Gupta A, Pardoll DM, Sosman JA, Hodi FS
J Clin Oncol. 2014;32(10):1020. Epub 2014 Mar 3.
PURPOSE: Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) is an inhibitory receptor expressed by activated T cells that downmodulates effector functions and limits the generation of immune memory. PD-1 blockade can mediate tumor regression in a substantial proportion of patients with melanoma, but it is not known whether this is associated with extended survival or maintenance of response after treatment is discontinued.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with advanced melanoma (N = 107) enrolled between 2008 and 2012 received intravenous nivolumab in an outpatient setting every 2 weeks for up to 96 weeks and were observed for overall survival, long-term safety, and response duration after treatment discontinuation.
RESULTS: Median overall survival in nivolumab-treated patients (62% with two to five prior systemic therapies) was 16.8 months, and 1- and 2-year survival rates were 62% and 43%, respectively. Among 33 patients with objective tumor regressions (31%), the Kaplan-Meier estimated median response duration was 2 years. Seventeen patients discontinued therapy for reasons other than disease progression, and 12 (71%) of 17 maintained responses off-therapy for at least 16 weeks (range, 16 to 56+ weeks). Objective response and toxicity rates were similar to those reported previously; in an extended analysis of all 306 patients treated on this trial (including those with other cancer types), exposure-adjusted toxicity rates were not cumulative.
CONCLUSION: Overall survival following nivolumab treatment in patients with advanced treatment-refractory melanoma compares favorably with that in literature studies of similar patient populations. Responses were durable and persisted after drug discontinuation. Long-term safety was acceptable. Ongoing randomized clinical trials will further assess the impact of nivolumab therapy on overall survival in patients with metastatic melanoma.
Suzanne L. Topalian, William H. Sharfman, Julie R. Brahmer, Evan J. Lipson, Janis M. Taube, and Drew M. Pardoll, The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, MD; Mario Sznol and Harriet M. Kluger, Yale University School of Medicine and Smilow Cancer Center, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT; David F. McDermott, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center; Donald P. Lawrence, Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center; F. Stephen Hodi, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA; Richard D. Carvajal, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY; Michael B. Atkins, Georgetown-Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Washington, DC; John D. Powderly, Carolina BioOncology Institute, Huntersville, NC; Philip D. Leming, The Christ Hospital Cancer Center, Cincinnati, OH; Igor Puzanov and Jeffrey A. Sosman, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN; David C. Smith, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI; and Jon M. Wigginton, Georgia D. Kollia, and Asho
Patterns of onset and resolution of immune-related adverse events of special interest with ipilimumab: detailed safety analysis from a phase 3 trial in patients with advanced melanoma.
Weber JS, Dummer R, de Pril V, LebbéC, Hodi FS, MDX010-20 Investigators
Cancer. 2013 May;119(9):1675-82. Epub 2013 Feb 7.
BACKGROUND: Ipilimumab 3 mg/kg was the first agent to demonstrate improved survival in previously treated patients with metastatic melanoma in a phase 3 trial (MDX010-20). Ipilimumab produced a characteristic spectrum of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) of special interest, consistent with its immune-based mechanism of action.
METHODS: In MDX010-20, 676 previously treated patients were randomized 3:1:1 to receive ipilimumab 3 mg/kg plus the glycoprotein 100 melanoma antigen vaccine (gp100), ipilimumab 3 mg/kg + placebo, or gp100 vaccine + placebo. For the current report, the authors conducted a detailed analysis of the time to onset and resolution of irAEs associated with ipilimumab therapy.
RESULTS: Grade 2 through 5 irAEs generally developed during the induction phase of treatment (0-12 weeks). Most, including grade 3/4 irAEs, were reversible when managed with treatment guidelines using vigilant monitoring and corticosteroids. The median time to resolution (to grade 1 or 0 or to the grade at baseline) of irAEs that had an onset during the induction phase was approximately 6 weeks for grade 2 through 4 irAEs and 8 weeks for grade 3 and 4 irAEs. Across the entire study duration, most grade 2 through 4 irAEs resolved within 12 weeks.
CONCLUSIONS: Most ipilimumab-associated irAEs, including grade 3/4 symptoms, developed within 12 weeks of initial dosing and resolved within 12 weeks of onset. IrAEs were well characterized in their evolution and could be managed using published algorithms.
Donald A. Adam Comprehensive Melanoma Research Center, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida 33612, USA. email@example.com