UpToDate
Official reprint from UpToDate®
www.uptodate.com ©2016 UpToDate®

Tests to evaluate left ventricular systolic function

Authors
M Barbara Srichai, MD, MS, FACC, FAHA
Peter G Danias, MD, PhD, FACC, FESC
João Lima, MD
Section Editors
Warren J Manning, MD
Gary V Heller, MD, PhD, FACC, MASNC
Deputy Editors
Susan B Yeon, MD, JD, FACC
Brian C Downey, MD, FACC

INTRODUCTION

Assessment of left ventricular (LV) systolic function is important for diagnosis, management, follow-up, and prognostic evaluation of patients in a variety of clinical settings. Accurate and reliable determination of LV systolic function is important given the key role this plays in clinical practice.

INDICATIONS/CLINICAL USE

Indications for evaluation of left ventricular (LV) systolic function include the following:

Signs and symptoms of heart disease.

Signs or symptoms suggestive of heart disease such as unexplained electrocardiographic abnormality, palpitations, stroke, or peripheral embolic event.

Signs or symptoms of heart failure. Information on LV systolic function as well as diastolic function, chamber geometry, regional wall motion, and valve function is important for diagnosis and management [1]. Thus, documentation of LV systolic function, including evaluation of LV ejection fraction, is considered a quality-of-care performance measure in heart failure [2]. (See "Evaluation of the patient with suspected heart failure".)

                                                       

Subscribers log in here

To continue reading this article, you must log in with your personal, hospital, or group practice subscription. For more information or to purchase a personal subscription, click below on the option that best describes you:
Literature review current through: Nov 2016. | This topic last updated: Tue Jul 26 00:00:00 GMT+00:00 2016.
The content on the UpToDate website is not intended nor recommended as a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your own physician or other qualified health care professional regarding any medical questions or conditions. The use of this website is governed by the UpToDate Terms of Use ©2016 UpToDate, Inc.
References
Top
  1. Yancy CW, Jessup M, Bozkurt B, et al. 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure: executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines. Circulation 2013; 128:1810.
  2. Bonow RO, Bennett S, Casey DE Jr, et al. ACC/AHA Clinical Performance Measures for Adults with Chronic Heart Failure: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Performance Measures (Writing Committee to Develop Heart Failure Clinical Performance Measures): endorsed by the Heart Failure Society of America. Circulation 2005; 112:1853.
  3. Bellenger NG, Burgess MI, Ray SG, et al. Comparison of left ventricular ejection fraction and volumes in heart failure by echocardiography, radionuclide ventriculography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance; are they interchangeable? Eur Heart J 2000; 21:1387.
  4. Bernard Y, Meneveau N, Boucher S, et al. Lack of agreement between left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction determined by two-dimensional echocardiography and contrast cineangiography in postinfarction patients. Echocardiography 2001; 18:113.
  5. Naik MM, Diamond GA, Pai T, et al. Correspondence of left ventricular ejection fraction determinations from two-dimensional echocardiography, radionuclide angiography and contrast cineangiography. J Am Coll Cardiol 1995; 25:937.
  6. Jenkins C, Bricknell K, Chan J, et al. Comparison of two- and three-dimensional echocardiography with sequential magnetic resonance imaging for evaluating left ventricular volume and ejection fraction over time in patients with healed myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 2007; 99:300.
  7. Valle-Muñoz A, Estornell-Erill J, Soriano-Navarro CJ, et al. Late gadolinium enhancement-cardiovascular magnetic resonance identifies coronary artery disease as the aetiology of left ventricular dysfunction in acute new-onset congestive heart failure. Eur J Echocardiogr 2009; 10:968.
  8. Warnes CA, Williams RG, Bashore TM, et al. ACC/AHA 2008 Guidelines for the Management of Adults with Congenital Heart Disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (writing committee to develop guidelines on the management of adults with congenital heart disease). Circulation 2008; 118:e714.
  9. http://www.healthcommunities.com/heart-tests/cardiac-imaging-tests-radiation-exposure_jhmwp.shtml (Accessed on June 01, 2016).
  10. van Royen N, Jaffe CC, Krumholz HM, et al. Comparison and reproducibility of visual echocardiographic and quantitative radionuclide left ventricular ejection fractions. Am J Cardiol 1996; 77:843.
  11. Butler J. The emerging role of multi-detector computed tomography in heart failure. J Card Fail 2007; 13:215.
  12. Atchley AE, Kitzman DW, Whellan DJ, et al. Myocardial perfusion, function, and dyssynchrony in patients with heart failure: baseline results from the single-photon emission computed tomography imaging ancillary study of the Heart Failure and A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of Exercise TraiNing (HF-ACTION) Trial. Am Heart J 2009; 158:S53.
  13. Gigliotti OS, Babb JD, Dieter RS, et al. Optimal use of left ventriculography at the time of cardiac catheterization: a consensus statement from the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2015; 85:181.
  14. Lane C, Dorian P, Ghosh N, et al. Limitations in the current screening practice of assessing left ventricular ejection fraction for a primary prophylactic implantable defibrillator in southern Ontario. Can J Cardiol 2010; 26:e118.
  15. Dandel M, Lehmkuhl H, Knosalla C, et al. Strain and strain rate imaging by echocardiography - basic concepts and clinical applicability. Curr Cardiol Rev 2009; 5:133.
  16. Thomson HL, Basmadjian AJ, Rainbird AJ, et al. Contrast echocardiography improves the accuracy and reproducibility of left ventricular remodeling measurements: a prospective, randomly assigned, blinded study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001; 38:867.
  17. Malm S, Frigstad S, Sagberg E, et al. Accurate and reproducible measurement of left ventricular volume and ejection fraction by contrast echocardiography: a comparison with magnetic resonance imaging. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004; 44:1030.
  18. Hundley WG, Kizilbash AM, Afridi I, et al. Administration of an intravenous perfluorocarbon contrast agent improves echocardiographic determination of left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction: comparison with cine magnetic resonance imaging. J Am Coll Cardiol 1998; 32:1426.
  19. Hoffmann R, Barletta G, von Bardeleben S, et al. Analysis of left ventricular volumes and function: a multicenter comparison of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, cine ventriculography, and unenhanced and contrast-enhanced two-dimensional and three-dimensional echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2014; 27:292.
  20. American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, American Society of Echocardiography, American Heart Association, et al. ACCF/ASE/AHA/ASNC/HFSA/HRS/SCAI/SCCM/SCCT/SCMR 2011 Appropriate Use Criteria for Echocardiography. A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, American Society of Echocardiography, American Heart Association, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Heart Failure Society of America, Heart Rhythm Society, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Critical Care Medicine, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance American College of Chest Physicians. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2011; 24:229.
  21. Lang RM, Badano LP, Mor-Avi V, et al. Recommendations for cardiac chamber quantification by echocardiography in adults: an update from the American Society of Echocardiography and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2015; 28:1.
  22. ACC practice toolkit for heart failure: assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction http://www.acc.org/tools-and-practice-support/clinical-toolkits/heart-failure-practice-solutions/left-ventricular-ejection-fraction-lvef-assessment-outpatient-setting (Accessed on May 31, 2016).
  23. Bargiggia GS, Bertucci C, Recusani F, et al. A new method for estimating left ventricular dP/dt by continuous wave Doppler-echocardiography. Validation studies at cardiac catheterization. Circulation 1989; 80:1287.
  24. Thavendiranathan P, Poulin F, Lim KD, et al. Use of myocardial strain imaging by echocardiography for the early detection of cardiotoxicity in patients during and after cancer chemotherapy: a systematic review. J Am Coll Cardiol 2014; 63:2751.
  25. Lang RM, Badano LP, Mor-Avi V, et al. Recommendations for cardiac chamber quantification by echocardiography in adults: an update from the American Society of Echocardiography and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2015; 16:233.
  26. Eaton LW, Maughan WL, Shoukas AA, Weiss JL. Accurate volume determination in the isolated ejecting canine left ventricle by two-dimensional echocardiography. Circulation 1979; 60:320.
  27. Erbel R, Krebs W, Henn G, et al. Comparison of single-plane and biplane volume determination by two-dimensional echocardiography. 1. Asymmetric model hearts. Eur Heart J 1982; 3:469.
  28. Wyatt HL, Meerbaum S, Heng MK, et al. Cross-sectional echocardiography. III. Analysis of mathematic models for quantifying volume of symmetric and asymmetric left ventricles. Am Heart J 1980; 100:821.
  29. Erbel R, Schweizer P, Meyer J, et al. Left ventricular volume and ejection fraction determination by cross-sectional echocardiography in patients with coronary artery disease: a prospective study. Clin Cardiol 1980; 3:377.
  30. Kan G, Visser CA, Lie KI, Durrer D. Left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction by single plane two-dimensional apex echocardiography. Eur Heart J 1981; 2:339.
  31. Schiller NB, Acquatella H, Ports TA, et al. Left ventricular volume from paired biplane two-dimensional echocardiography. Circulation 1979; 60:547.
  32. Barrett MJ, Jacobs L, Gomberg J, et al. Simultaneous contrast imaging of the left ventricle by two-dimensional echocardiography and standard ventriculography. Clin Cardiol 1982; 5:208.
  33. Erbel R, Schweizer P, Lambertz H, et al. Echoventriculography -- a simultaneous analysis of two-dimensional echocardiography and cineventriculography. Circulation 1983; 67:205.
  34. Amico AF, Lichtenberg GS, Reisner SA, et al. Superiority of visual versus computerized echocardiographic estimation of radionuclide left ventricular ejection fraction. Am Heart J 1989; 118:1259.
  35. Mueller X, Stauffer JC, Jaussi A, et al. Subjective visual echocardiographic estimate of left ventricular ejection fraction as an alternative to conventional echocardiographic methods: comparison with contrast angiography. Clin Cardiol 1991; 14:898.
  36. Habash-Bseiso DE, Rokey R, Berger CJ, et al. Accuracy of noninvasive ejection fraction measurement in a large community-based clinic. Clin Med Res 2005; 3:75.
  37. Greupner J, Zimmermann E, Grohmann A, et al. Head-to-head comparison of left ventricular function assessment with 64-row computed tomography, biplane left cineventriculography, and both 2- and 3-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography: comparison with magnetic resonance imaging as the reference standard. J Am Coll Cardiol 2012; 59:1897.
  38. Pickett CA, Cheezum MK, Kassop D, et al. Accuracy of cardiac CT, radionucleotide and invasive ventriculography, two- and three-dimensional echocardiography, and SPECT for left and right ventricular ejection fraction compared with cardiac MRI: a meta-analysis. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2015; 16:848.
  39. Otterstad JE, Froeland G, St John Sutton M, Holme I. Accuracy and reproducibility of biplane two-dimensional echocardiographic measurements of left ventricular dimensions and function. Eur Heart J 1997; 18:507.
  40. Vourvouri EC, Poldermans D, Bax JJ, et al. Evaluation of left ventricular function and volumes in patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy: gated single-photon emission computed tomography versus two-dimensional echocardiography. Eur J Nucl Med 2001; 28:1610.
  41. Rijnierse MT, van der Lingen AL, Weiland MT, et al. Clinical Impact of Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Versus Echocardiography-Guided Patient Selection for Primary Prevention Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Therapy. Am J Cardiol 2015; 116:406.
  42. Yu EH, Sloggett CE, Iwanochko RM, et al. Feasibility and accuracy of left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction determination by fundamental, tissue harmonic, and intravenous contrast imaging in difficult-to-image patients. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2000; 13:216.
  43. Hundley WG, Kizilbash AM, Afridi I, et al. Effect of contrast enhancement on transthoracic echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular regional wall motion. Am J Cardiol 1999; 84:1365.
  44. Dorosz JL, Lezotte DC, Weitzenkamp DA, et al. Performance of 3-dimensional echocardiography in measuring left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol 2012; 59:1799.
  45. Smith MD, MacPhail B, Harrison MR, et al. Value and limitations of transesophageal echocardiography in determination of left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction. J Am Coll Cardiol 1992; 19:1213.
  46. Stoddard MF, Dillon S, Peters G, Kupersmith J. Left ventricular ejection fraction is increased during transesophageal echocardiography in patients with impaired ventricular function. Am Heart J 1992; 123:1005.
  47. Salustri A, Kofflard MJ, Roelandt JR, et al. Assessment of left ventricular outflow in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using anyplane and paraplane analysis of three-dimensional echocardiography. Am J Cardiol 1996; 78:462.
  48. Hung J, Lang R, Flachskampf F, et al. 3D echocardiography: a review of the current status and future directions. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2007; 20:213.
  49. Foley TA, Mankad SV, Anavekar NS, et al. Measuring left ventricular ejection fraction - techniques and potential pitfalls. European Cardiology 2012; 8:108.
  50. Khawaja OA, Shaikh KA, Al-Mallah MH. Meta-analysis of adverse cardiovascular events associated with echocardiographic contrast agents. Am J Cardiol 2010; 106:742.
  51. Porter TR, Abdelmoneim S, Belcik JT, et al. Guidelines for the cardiac sonographer in the performance of contrast echocardiography: a focused update from the American Society of Echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2014; 27:797.
  52. Hendel RC, Berman DS, Di Carli MF, et al. ACCF/ASNC/ACR/AHA/ASE/SCCT/SCMR/SNM 2009 appropriate use criteria for cardiac radionuclide imaging: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, the American College of Radiology, the American Heart Association, the American Society of Echocardiography, the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and the Society of Nuclear Medicine. Circulation 2009; 119:e561.
  53. Corbett JR, Akinboboye OO, Bacharach SL, et al. Equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography. J Nucl Cardiol 2006; 13:e56.
  54. Friedman JD, Berman DS, Borges-Neto S, et al. First-pass radionuclide angiography. J Nucl Cardiol 2006; 13:e42.
  55. Federman J, Brown ML, Tancredi RG, et al. Multiple-gated acquisition cardiac blood-pool isotope imaging. Evaluation of left ventricular function correlated with contrast angiography. Mayo Clin Proc 1978; 53:625.
  56. Sorensen SG, Hamilton GW, Williams DL, Ritchie JL. R-wave synchronized blood-pool imaging. Radiology 1979; 131:473.
  57. Wackers FJ, Berger HJ, Johnstone DE, et al. Multiple gated cardiac blood pool imaging for left ventricular ejection fraction: validation of the technique and assessment of variability. Am J Cardiol 1979; 43:1159.
  58. Pfisterer ME, Battler A, Swanson SM, et al. Reproducibility of ejection-fraction determinations by equilibrium radionuclide angiography in response to supine bicycle exercise: concise communication. J Nucl Med 1979; 20:491.
  59. Upton MT, Rerych SK, Newman GE, et al. The reproducibility of radionuclide angiographic measurements of left ventricular function in normal subjects at rest and during exercise. Circulation 1980; 62:126.
  60. Canclini S, Terzi A, Rossini P, et al. Gated blood pool tomography for the evaluation of global and regional left ventricular function in comparison to planar techniques and echocardiography. Ital Heart J 2001; 2:42.
  61. Debatin JF, Nadel SN, Paolini JF, et al. Cardiac ejection fraction: phantom study comparing cine MR imaging, radionuclide blood pool imaging, and ventriculography. J Magn Reson Imaging 1992; 2:135.
  62. Nichols KJ, Van Tosh A, Wang Y, et al. Validation of gated blood-pool SPECT regional left ventricular function measurements. J Nucl Med 2009; 50:53.
  63. Hendel RC, Patel MR, Kramer CM, et al. ACCF/ACR/SCCT/SCMR/ASNC/NASCI/SCAI/SIR 2006 appropriateness criteria for cardiac computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Quality Strategic Directions Committee Appropriateness Criteria Working Group, American College of Radiology, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, North American Society for Cardiac Imaging, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and Society of Interventional Radiology. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006; 48:1475.
  64. Sourides BE, Theofilogiannakos EK, Theofilogiannakos G, et al. Clinical experience from 1000 consecutive cardiovascular MRI cases at a tertiary referral medical center. Hellenic J Cardiol 2007; 48:192.
  65. Lotan CS, Cranney GB, Bouchard A, et al. The value of cine nuclear magnetic resonance imaging for assessing regional ventricular function. J Am Coll Cardiol 1989; 14:1721.
  66. White RD, Cassidy MM, Cheitlin MD, et al. Segmental evaluation of left ventricular wall motion after myocardial infarction: magnetic resonance imaging versus echocardiography. Am Heart J 1988; 115:166.
  67. Götte MJ, van Rossum AC, Marcus JT, et al. Quantification of regional contractile function after infarction: strain analysis superior to wall thickening analysis in discriminating infarct from remote myocardium. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001; 37:808.
  68. Walsh TF, Hundley WG. Assessment of ventricular function with cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Cardiol Clin 2007; 25:15.
  69. Rehr RB, Malloy CR, Filipchuk NG, Peshock RM. Left ventricular volumes measured by MR imaging. Radiology 1985; 156:717.
  70. Longmore DB, Klipstein RH, Underwood SR, et al. Dimensional accuracy of magnetic resonance in studies of the heart. Lancet 1985; 1:1360.
  71. Grothues F, Smith GC, Moon JC, et al. Comparison of interstudy reproducibility of cardiovascular magnetic resonance with two-dimensional echocardiography in normal subjects and in patients with heart failure or left ventricular hypertrophy. Am J Cardiol 2002; 90:29.
  72. Bellenger NG, Davies LC, Francis JM, et al. Reduction in sample size for studies of remodeling in heart failure by the use of cardiovascular magnetic resonance. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 2000; 2:271.
  73. Semelka RC, Tomei E, Wagner S, et al. Interstudy reproducibility of dimensional and functional measurements between cine magnetic resonance studies in the morphologically abnormal left ventricle. Am Heart J 1990; 119:1367.
  74. Semelka RC, Tomei E, Wagner S, et al. Normal left ventricular dimensions and function: interstudy reproducibility of measurements with cine MR imaging. Radiology 1990; 174:763.
  75. Childs H, Ma L, Ma M, et al. Comparison of long and short axis quantification of left ventricular volume parameters by cardiovascular magnetic resonance, with ex-vivo validation. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 2011; 13:40.
  76. Feng L, Srichai MB, Lim RP, et al. Highly accelerated real-time cardiac cine MRI using k-t SPARSE-SENSE. Magn Reson Med 2013; 70:64.
  77. Jeong D, Schiebler ML, Lai P, et al. Single breath hold 3D cardiac cine MRI using kat-ARC: preliminary results at 1.5T. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2015; 31:851.
  78. Papavassiliu T, Kühl HP, Schröder M, et al. Effect of endocardial trabeculae on left ventricular measurements and measurement reproducibility at cardiovascular MR imaging. Radiology 2005; 236:57.
  79. Karamitsos TD, Hudsmith LE, Selvanayagam JB, et al. Operator induced variability in left ventricular measurements with cardiovascular magnetic resonance is improved after training. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 2007; 9:777.
  80. Dill T. Contraindications to magnetic resonance imaging: non-invasive imaging. Heart 2008; 94:943.
  81. Fihn SD, Gardin JM, Abrams J, et al. 2012 ACCF/AHA/ACP/AATS/PCNA/SCAI/STS guideline for the diagnosis and management of patients with stable ischemic heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines, and the American College of Physicians, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Circulation 2012; 126:e354.
  82. Klocke FJ, Baird MG, Lorell BH, et al. ACC/AHA/ASNC guidelines for the clinical use of cardiac radionuclide imaging--executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (ACC/AHA/ASNC Committee to Revise the 1995 Guidelines for the Clinical Use of Cardiac Radionuclide Imaging). Circulation 2003; 108:1404.
  83. Abidov A, Germano G, Hachamovitch R, et al. Gated SPECT in assessment of regional and global left ventricular function: an update. J Nucl Cardiol 2013; 20:1118.
  84. Cullom SJ, Case JA, Bateman TM. Electrocardiographically gated myocardial perfusion SPECT: technical principles and quality control considerations. J Nucl Cardiol 1998; 5:418.
  85. Sharir T, Berman DS, Waechter PB, et al. Quantitative analysis of regional motion and thickening by gated myocardial perfusion SPECT: normal heterogeneity and criteria for abnormality. J Nucl Med 2001; 42:1630.
  86. Xu Y, Hayes S, Ali I, et al. Automatic and visual reproducibility of perfusion and function measures for myocardial perfusion SPECT. J Nucl Cardiol 2010; 17:1050.
  87. Ioannidis JP, Trikalinos TA, Danias PG. Electrocardiogram-gated single-photon emission computed tomography versus cardiac magnetic resonance imaging for the assessment of left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction: a meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002; 39:2059.
  88. Lin X, Xu H, Zhao X, et al. Repeatability of left ventricular dyssynchrony and function parameters in serial gated myocardial perfusion SPECT studies. J Nucl Cardiol 2010; 17:811.
  89. Kliner D, Wang L, Winger D, et al. A prospective evaluation of the repeatability of left ventricular ejection fraction measurement by gated SPECT. J Nucl Cardiol 2015; 22:1237.
  90. Knollmann D, Winz OH, Meyer PT, et al. Gated myocardial perfusion SPECT: algorithm-specific influence of reorientation on calculation of left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction. J Nucl Med 2008; 49:1636.
  91. Germano G, Kavanagh PB, Slomka PJ, Berman DS. Tracking a therapeutic response: how reliable are serial measurements of LV perfusion and function? J Nucl Cardiol 2012; 19:360.
  92. Paul AK, Nabi HA. Gated myocardial perfusion SPECT: basic principles, technical aspects, and clinical applications. J Nucl Med Technol 2004; 32:179.
  93. Berman D, Germano G, Lewin H, et al. Comparison of post-stress ejection fraction and relative left ventricular volumes by automatic analysis of gated myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography acquired in the supine and prone positions. J Nucl Cardiol 1998; 5:40.
  94. Paeng JC, Lee DS, Cheon GJ, et al. Reproducibility of an automatic quantitation of regional myocardial wall motion and systolic thickening on gated 99mTc-sestamibi myocardial SPECT. J Nucl Med 2001; 42:695.
  95. DePuey EG, Garcia EV. Optimal specificity of thallium-201 SPECT through recognition of imaging artifacts. J Nucl Med 1989; 30:441.
  96. Hendel RC, Corbett JR, Cullom SJ, et al. The value and practice of attenuation correction for myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging: a joint position statement from the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology and the Society of Nuclear Medicine. J Nucl Cardiol 2002; 9:135.
  97. Anagnostopoulos C, Gunning MG, Pennell DJ, et al. Regional myocardial motion and thickening assessed at rest by ECG-gated 99mTc-MIBI emission tomography and by magnetic resonance imaging. Eur J Nucl Med 1996; 23:909.
  98. Manrique A, Faraggi M, Véra P, et al. 201Tl and 99mTc-MIBI gated SPECT in patients with large perfusion defects and left ventricular dysfunction: comparison with equilibrium radionuclide angiography. J Nucl Med 1999; 40:805.
  99. Case JA, Cullom SJ, Bateman TM, et al. Overestimation of LVEF by gated MIBI myocardial perfusion SPECT in patients with small hearts. J Am Coll Cardiol 1998; 31:43A.
  100. Toba M, Kumita S, Cho K, et al. Comparison of Emory and Cedars-Sinai methods for assessment of left ventricular function from gated myocardial perfusion SPECT in patients with a small heart. Ann Nucl Med 2000; 14:421.
  101. Ford PV, Chatziioannou SN, Moore WH, Dhekne RD. Overestimation of the LVEF by quantitative gated SPECT in simulated left ventricles. J Nucl Med 2001; 42:454.
  102. Ben-Haim S, Gips S, Merdler A, et al. Myocardial stunning demonstrated with rest and post-stress measurements of left ventricular function using dual-isotope gated myocardial perfusion SPECT. Nucl Med Commun 2004; 25:657.
  103. Beanlands R, Heller GV. Proceedings of the ASNC Cardiac PET Summit, 12 May 2014, Baltimore, MD : 1: The value of PET: Integrating cardiovascular PET into the care continuum. J Nucl Cardiol 2015; 22:557.
  104. Bateman TM, Lance Gould K, Di Carli MF. Proceedings of the Cardiac PET Summit, 12 May 2014, Baltimore, MD : 3: Quantitation of myocardial blood flow. J Nucl Cardiol 2015; 22:571.
  105. Dorbala S, Vangala D, Sampson U, et al. Value of vasodilator left ventricular ejection fraction reserve in evaluating the magnitude of myocardium at risk and the extent of angiographic coronary artery disease: a 82Rb PET/CT study. J Nucl Med 2007; 48:349.
  106. Dorbala S, Hachamovitch R, Curillova Z, et al. Incremental prognostic value of gated Rb-82 positron emission tomography myocardial perfusion imaging over clinical variables and rest LVEF. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2009; 2:846.
  107. Lertsburapa K, Ahlberg AW, Bateman TM, et al. Independent and incremental prognostic value of left ventricular ejection fraction determined by stress gated rubidium 82 PET imaging in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. J Nucl Cardiol 2008; 15:745.
  108. Miller TR, Wallis JW, Landy BR, et al. Measurement of global and regional left ventricular function by cardiac PET. J Nucl Med 1994; 35:999.
  109. Taylor AJ, Cerqueira M, Hodgson JM, et al. ACCF/SCCT/ACR/AHA/ASE/ASNC/NASCI/SCAI/SCMR 2010 Appropriate Use Criteria for Cardiac Computed Tomography. A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, the American College of Radiology, the American Heart Association, the American Society of Echocardiography, the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, the North American Society for Cardiovascular Imaging, the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance. Circulation 2010; 122:e525.
  110. Schepis T, Gaemperli O, Koepfli P, et al. Comparison of 64-slice CT with gated SPECT for evaluation of left ventricular function. J Nucl Med 2006; 47:1288.
  111. Henneman MM, Schuijf JD, Jukema JW, et al. Assessment of global and regional left ventricular function and volumes with 64-slice MSCT: a comparison with 2D echocardiography. J Nucl Cardiol 2006; 13:480.
  112. Butler J, Shapiro MD, Jassal DS, et al. Comparison of multidetector computed tomography and two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography for left ventricular assessment in patients with heart failure. Am J Cardiol 2007; 99:247.
  113. Ferencik M, Gregory SA, Butler J, et al. Analysis of cardiac dimensions, mass and function in heart transplant recipients using 64-slice multi-detector computed tomography. J Heart Lung Transplant 2007; 26:478.
  114. Abbara S, Chow BJ, Pena AJ, et al. Assessment of left ventricular function with 16- and 64-slice multi-detector computed tomography. Eur J Radiol 2008; 67:481.
  115. Wu YW, Tadamura E, Yamamuro M, et al. Estimation of global and regional cardiac function using 64-slice computed tomography: a comparison study with echocardiography, gated-SPECT and cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Int J Cardiol 2008; 128:69.
  116. Wu YW, Tadamura E, Kanao S, et al. Left ventricular functional analysis using 64-slice multidetector row computed tomography: comparison with left ventriculography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Cardiology 2008; 109:135.
  117. Ko SM, Kim YJ, Park JH, Choi NM. Assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction and regional wall motion with 64-slice multidetector CT: a comparison with two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography. Br J Radiol 2010; 83:28.
  118. Sayyed SH, Cassidy MM, Hadi MA. Use of multidetector computed tomography for evaluation of global and regional left ventricular function. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr 2009; 3:S23.
  119. Juergens KU, Maintz D, Grude M, et al. Multi-detector row computed tomography of the heart: does a multi-segment reconstruction algorithm improve left ventricular volume measurements? Eur Radiol 2005; 15:111.
  120. Juergens KU, Grude M, Fallenberg EM, et al. Using ECG-gated multidetector CT to evaluate global left ventricular myocardial function in patients with coronary artery disease. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2002; 179:1545.
  121. Hundt W, Siebert K, Wintersperger BJ, et al. Assessment of global left ventricular function: comparison of cardiac multidetector-row computed tomography with angiocardiography. J Comput Assist Tomogr 2005; 29:373.
  122. Juergens KU, Seifarth H, Maintz D, et al. MDCT determination of volume and function of the left ventricle: are short-axis image reformations necessary? AJR Am J Roentgenol 2006; 186:S371.
  123. van der Vleuten PA, Willems TP, Götte MJ, et al. Quantification of global left ventricular function: comparison of multidetector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. a meta-analysis and review of the current literature. Acta Radiol 2006; 47:1049.
  124. Raman SV, Shah M, McCarthy B, et al. Multi-detector row cardiac computed tomography accurately quantifies right and left ventricular size and function compared with cardiac magnetic resonance. Am Heart J 2006; 151:736.
  125. Juergens KU, Grude M, Maintz D, et al. Multi-detector row CT of left ventricular function with dedicated analysis software versus MR imaging: initial experience. Radiology 2004; 230:403.
  126. Annuar BR, Liew CK, Chin SP, et al. Assessment of global and regional left ventricular function using 64-slice multislice computed tomography and 2D echocardiography: a comparison with cardiac magnetic resonance. Eur J Radiol 2008; 65:112.
  127. Bruners P, Mahnken AH, Knackstedt C, et al. Assessment of global left and right ventricular function using dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) in comparison to MRI: an experimental study in a porcine model. Invest Radiol 2007; 42:756.
  128. Juergens KU, Seifarth H, Range F, et al. Automated threshold-based 3D segmentation versus short-axis planimetry for assessment of global left ventricular function with dual-source MDCT. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2008; 190:308.
  129. Grude M, Juergens KU, Wichter T, et al. Evaluation of global left ventricular myocardial function with electrocardiogram-gated multidetector computed tomography: comparison with magnetic resonance imaging. Invest Radiol 2003; 38:653.
  130. Kim TH, Hur J, Kim SJ, et al. Two-phase reconstruction for the assessment of left ventricular volume and function using retrospective ECG-gated MDCT: comparison with echocardiography. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2005; 185:319.
  131. Sugeng L, Mor-Avi V, Weinert L, et al. Quantitative assessment of left ventricular size and function: side-by-side comparison of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography and computed tomography with magnetic resonance reference. Circulation 2006; 114:654.
  132. Yamamuro M, Tadamura E, Kubo S, et al. Cardiac functional analysis with multi-detector row CT and segmental reconstruction algorithm: comparison with echocardiography, SPECT, and MR imaging. Radiology 2005; 234:381.
  133. Kim SS, Ko SM, Song MG, Kim JS. Assessment of global function of left ventricle with dual-source CT in patients with severe arrhythmia: a comparison with the use of two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2010; 26:213.
  134. Wang R, Meinel FG, Schoepf UJ, et al. Performance of Automated Software in the Assessment of Segmental Left Ventricular Function in Cardiac CT: Comparison with Cardiac Magnetic Resonance. Eur Radiol 2015; 25:3560.
  135. Brodoefel H, Kramer U, Reimann A, et al. Dual-source CT with improved temporal resolution in assessment of left ventricular function: a pilot study. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2007; 189:1064.
  136. Orakzai SH, Orakzai RH, Nasir K, Budoff MJ. Assessment of cardiac function using multidetector row computed tomography. J Comput Assist Tomogr 2006; 30:555.
  137. Abbara S, Arbab-Zadeh A, Callister TQ, et al. SCCT guidelines for performance of coronary computed tomographic angiography: a report of the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography Guidelines Committee. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr 2009; 3:190.
  138. Media ACoDaC. Administration of Contrast Media to Breast-Feeding Mothers. ACR Manual on Contrast Media 2013: 97.
  139. Bui KL, Horner JD, Herts BR, Einstein DM. Intravenous iodinated contrast agents: risks and problematic situations. Cleve Clin J Med 2007; 74:361.
  140. Rackley CE. Value of ventriculography in cardiac function and diagnosis. Cardiovasc Clin 1975; 6:283.
  141. Walsh W, Falicov RE, Pai AL. Comparison of single and biplane ejection fractions in patients with Ischaemic heart disease. Br Heart J 1976; 38:388.
  142. Vogel JH, Cornish D, McFadden RB. Underestimation of ejection fraction with singleplane angiography in coronary artery disease: role of biplane angiography. Chest 1973; 64:217.
  143. Godkar D, Bachu K, Dave B, et al. Comparison and co-relation of invasive and noninvasive methods of ejection fraction measurement. J Natl Med Assoc 2007; 99:1227.
  144. Murarka S, Attaran R, Movahed MR. Correlation between estimated ejection fraction measured by echocardiography with ejection fraction estimated by cardiac catheterization in patients awaiting cardiac transplantation. J Invasive Cardiol 2010; 22:571.
  145. Joffe SW, Ferrara J, Chalian A, et al. Are ejection fraction measurements by echocardiography and left ventriculography equivalent? Am Heart J 2009; 158:496.
  146. Kudithipudi V, Kalra N, Bhatt RD, Sorrell VL. Comparison of LVEF obtained with single-plane RAO ventriculography and echocardiography in patients with and without obstructive coronary artery disease. Echocardiography 2009; 26:630.
  147. Pantos I, Patatoukas G, Katritsis DG, Efstathopoulos E. Patient radiation doses in interventional cardiology procedures. Curr Cardiol Rev 2009; 5:1.
  148. Vijayalakshmi K, Kelly D, Chapple CL, et al. Cardiac catheterisation: radiation doses and lifetime risk of malignancy. Heart 2007; 93:370.
  149. Deligonul U, Jones S, Shurmur S, Oskarsson H. Contrast cine left ventriculography: comparison of two pigtail catheter shapes and analysis of factors determining the final quality. Cathet Cardiovasc Diagn 1996; 37:428.
  150. Hodges MC, Rollefson WA, Sample SA, et al. Comparison of low-volume versus standard-volume left ventriculography. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2001; 52:314.
  151. Croft CH, Lipscomb K, Mathis K, et al. Limitations of qualitative angiographic grading in aortic or mitral regurgitation. Am J Cardiol 1984; 53:1593.
  152. Mehran R, Aymong ED, Nikolsky E, et al. A simple risk score for prediction of contrast-induced nephropathy after percutaneous coronary intervention: development and initial validation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004; 44:1393.
  153. Goldenberg I, Shupak A, Shoshani O, Boulos M. Left ventriculography complicated by cerebral air embolism. Cathet Cardiovasc Diagn 1995; 35:331.
  154. Akpinar I, Dogan SM, Karabag T, et al. Pigtail catheter fracture and embolization into the abdominal aorta: an extremely rare angiographic complication. J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) 2012; 13:648.
  155. Mathur SK, Singh P. Transoesophageal echocardiography related complications. Indian J Anaesth 2009; 53:567.
  156. Baim DS. Cardiac Ventriculography. In: Grossman and Baim's Cardiac Catheterization, Angiography, and Intervention, 7th ed, Grossman W, Baim DS (Eds), Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia 2006. p.222.
  157. Carosio G, Taverna G, Ballestrero G, et al. [Use of 5 French catheters in percutaneous femoral coronaro-ventriculography (500 consecutive procedures with 5 French catheters)]. G Ital Cardiol 1991; 21:725.
  158. Basit A, Nazir R, Hahn H. Myocardial and pericardial staining by transradial Optitorque Jacky shape catheter during left ventriculogram. J Invasive Cardiol 2012; 24:128.
  159. Planas A, Pomar F, Vilar JV, Perez E. Cardiac rupture and tamponade during ventriculography. Int J Cardiol 2007; 118:128.
  160. Clark AL, Brennan AG, Robertson LJ, McArthur JD. Factors affecting patient radiation exposure during routine coronary angiography in a tertiary referral centre. Br J Radiol 2000; 73:184.
  161. Ureña PE, Lamas GA, Mitchell G, et al. Ejection fraction by radionuclide ventriculography and contrast left ventriculogram. A tale of two techniques. SAVE Investigators. Survival and Ventricular Enlargement. J Am Coll Cardiol 1999; 33:180.
Topic Outline

GRAPHICS