Testing and challenge procedures to evaluate allergic and asthmatic reactions to food additives
- Ronald A Simon, MD
Ronald A Simon, MD
- Adjunct Professor, Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine
- Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA
Food additives are synthetic or natural substances added to foods for multiple purposes. Despite the great number of additives used in the food and pharmaceutical industry, only a few have been implicated in true allergic (immunoglobulin E [IgE]-mediated) or other (immunologic or nonimmunologic) adverse reactions .
This topic review will discuss testing and challenge procedures used in the evaluation of allergic and asthmatic reactions to food additives. Specific food additives that have been implicated in causing allergic and asthmatic reactions are reviewed elsewhere. (See "Allergic and asthmatic reactions to food additives".)
Other topics that discuss adverse reactions to food additives include:
●Occupational asthma and rhinitis in food workers caused by allergens and irritants used in food production and processing (see "Occupational asthma: Definitions, epidemiology, causes, and risk factors" and "Occupational rhinitis").
●Food additives and hyperactivity or behavioral changes in children (see "Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: Epidemiology and pathogenesis", section on 'Dietary influences').To continue reading this article, you must log in with your personal, hospital, or group practice subscription. For more information on subscription options, click below on the option that best describes you:
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- INDICATIONS FOR ALLERGY EVALUATION
- Reactions to multiple food additives
- OBJECTIVE TESTING
- Skin prick testing
- - Obtaining food additives
- Blinding and masking additives
- Appropriate challenge doses
- Safety issues
- Patient preparation
- Specific types of challenges
- - Sulfite challenges in asthmatic patients
- - Mixed additive challenge
- Administering challenges
- - Monitoring
- - Subjective symptoms
- - Reactions to placebo
- - Treating symptoms during challenge
- - Reasons to abort challenge
- - Observation after challenge
- MANAGEMENT OF PATIENTS WITH CONFIRMED REACTIONS
- Patients with anaphylaxis
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS