Contributor disclosures are reviewed for conflicts of interest by the editorial group. When found, these are addressed by vetting through a multi-level review process, and through requirements for references to be provided to support the content. Appropriately referenced content is required of all authors and must conform to UpToDate standards of evidence.
INTRODUCTION — Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are a heterogeneous group of rare tumors that arise from mesenchymal cells at all body sites. The malignant precursor cell(s) can differentiate along one or several lineages, such as muscle, adipose, fibrous, cartilage, nerve, or vascular tissue. These tumors arise most often in the limbs (particularly the lower extremity), followed in order of frequency by the abdominal cavity/retroperitoneum, the trunk/thoracic region, and the head and neck. (See "Clinical presentation, histopathology, diagnostic evaluation, and staging of soft tissue sarcoma", section on 'Clinical presentation' and "Clinical presentation, histopathology, diagnostic evaluation, and staging of soft tissue sarcoma", section on 'Introduction'.)
While local complications from primary or recurrent sarcomas can cause significant morbidity and occasional mortality, the most life-threatening aspect of sarcomas is their propensity for hematogenous dissemination. The pattern of tumor spread varies according to tumor type and location:
●For most STS of the extremity, chest wall, or head or neck, the primary metastatic site is the lung [1,2]. However, there are exceptions. Extrapulmonary metastases to the retroperitoneum, spine, and paraspinous soft tissues predominate with myxoid/round cell liposarcomas, although lung metastases develop eventually in almost all . (See "Clinical presentation, histopathology, diagnostic evaluation, and staging of soft tissue sarcoma", section on 'Pattern of spread' and "Clinical presentation, histopathology, diagnostic evaluation, and staging of soft tissue sarcoma", section on 'Pattern of recurrence'.)
●With retroperitoneal and visceral sarcomas, the primary site of failure is local. Less commonly, these tumors spread hematogenously to the liver .
●Spread to locoregional lymph nodes is rare except with clear cell and epithelioid sarcomas, angiosarcomas, synovial sarcomas, and rhabdomyosarcomas .
The classification of STS, insight into their molecular pathogenesis, and the definition of optimal treatment strategies have evolved considerably over the past 10 to 25 years. There are more than 50 histologic subtypes of STS, many of which are associated with distinctive clinical profiles, responses to individual therapies, and prognoses. While in the past these tumors were all "lumped" together and treated similarly, consensus is emerging that the selection of treatment should be histology-driven, particularly in the setting of advanced disease. (See "Pathogenetic factors in soft tissue and bone sarcomas".)
The majority of patients who develop metastatic STS are incurable; however, therapeutic nihilism is unwarranted for the following reasons:
●The median survival after development of distant metastases is 11 to 15 months, and 20 to 25 percent of patients are still alive at two to three years [1,6]. The prognostic factors for more prolonged survival differ from those predicting response to chemotherapy , suggesting that survival is more dependent upon disease biology rather than solely upon treatment-associated considerations.
●Potentially curative options should be sought in appropriate patients so that the opportunity for cure is not overlooked. In selected patients, resection of pulmonary metastases is feasible, with reported five-year survival of 25 to 40 percent [7,8].
●For patients with metastatic unresectable disease, judicious use of systemic therapy provides meaningful symptom palliation, prevents rapid disease progression, and may, in some cases, prolong survival.
Systemic chemotherapy for metastatic non-gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) STS will be reviewed here. The primary management of localized STS of the extremity, trunk, or retroperitoneum; adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatments; surgical management of metastatic STS; and systemic therapy for specific types of STS, including GIST, rhabdomyosarcoma, desmoids, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, and Kaposi sarcoma, are discussed separately. (See appropriate topic reviews).
GENERAL PRINCIPLES — For patients with unresectable metastatic soft tissue sarcomas (STS), judicious use of systemic therapy provides meaningful palliation and may prolong survival. The selection of systemic therapy must be individualized and based upon several factors, including the histology and biologic behavior of the disease, as well as the health status and preferences of the patient.
The following sections will consider treatment for non-gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) common adult type STS. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy for GISTs, as well as treatment for rhabdomyosarcoma (which is far more common in children), Ewing sarcoma and osteosarcoma, and other bone sarcomas are covered separately. (See "Tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy for advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors" and "Rhabdomyosarcoma in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood: Treatment".)
Goals of therapy — Unresectable metastatic STS is, with rare exception, a fatal disease eventually. If all detectable disease can be eliminated by the use of chemotherapy alone or combined with surgery and radiation therapy (RT), a few patients may enter a prolonged remission. There are sizable numbers of clinical anecdotes that describe patients who have no evidence of disease more than 10 to 20 years following multimodality management of metastatic STS. However, for the majority of patients with metastatic STS, chemotherapy is administered with palliative intent to decrease tumor bulk, diminish symptoms, and improve quality of life.
In contrast to many other solid tumor types, many patients with metastatic STS will remain asymptomatic for long periods, sometimes for years. For these patients, chemotherapy may be considered to reduce tumor size or slow the inexorable pace of the disease. While it is hoped that survival may also be favorably impacted, there are no controlled clinical trials to indicate the magnitude of any such benefit, if it exists. Furthermore, any potential benefits from systemic therapy might be offset by treatment-related toxicities, particularly when combination chemotherapy is given.
Natural history of metastatic soft tissue sarcoma — The variability in the natural history of metastatic STS can be illustrated by the following reports:
●In a report in an era before GIST was recognized as a distinct clinical entity, outcomes from over 2000 patients treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy for advanced STS were examined . Median survival was approximately one year for the entire cohort, regardless of the specific regimen used. The likelihood of a chemotherapy response was greater in younger patients with high-grade non-leiomyosarcoma histology and no hepatic metastases, while longer median survival was predicted by a good performance status, low-grade histology, the absence of liver metastases, and a longer recurrence-free interval.
●In a more modern series, 488 patients were treated with first-line chemotherapy for advanced and/or metastatic STS . In multivariate analysis, age <40 years, liposarcoma or synovial sarcoma histology, lack of bone metastases, and combination, rather than single agent, therapy were associated with a better outcome.
These principles can be applied to therapeutic decision making. As an example, for some patients with asymptomatic, low-grade, unresectable disease (eg, low-grade intraabdominal leiomyosarcoma), it might be reasonable to follow the patient without active chemotherapy. Conversely, for patients with a high-grade chemotherapy-sensitive tumor, such as synovial sarcoma or liposarcoma, early use of combination chemotherapy may be preferable.
Histology-driven treatment — Most studies have been severely hampered by the admixture of a variety of histologic subtypes in the analysis of outcome, making it difficult to assess the clinical activity of any given treatment. The interpretation of clinical trial results will be heavily weighted by the distribution of histologic subtypes. This, in turn, complicates the assessment of chemotherapy efficacy, making it impossible to determine whether high or low response rates are due to the specific treatment or to the specific population under study .
It is increasingly recognized that different histologic subtypes of STS exhibit variable patterns of chemosensitivity. As examples:
●Synovial sarcomas and myxoid/round cell liposarcomas are among the more chemotherapy-sensitive subtypes when specific agents are used [11-14]. In particular, myxoid/round cell liposarcomas tend to be sensitive to doxorubicin-based chemotherapy, and synovial sarcoma appears especially sensitive to alkylating agents such as ifosfamide . In contrast, other subtypes, such as clear cell sarcoma and fibromyxoid sarcoma (Evans tumor), appear to have lower response rates to conventional anthracycline and ifosfamide-based chemotherapy [6,15]. GISTs are well recognized for the inactivity of standard cytotoxic agents.
●Leiomyosarcomas of uterine and non-uterine origin, endometrial stromal sarcomas, myxofibrosarcoma, dedifferentiated liposarcoma, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) exhibit considerable individual variability in their patterns of chemosensitivity. However, responses have been observed with anthracyclines, ifosfamide, combined doxorubicin plus ifosfamide , combined doxorubicin plus etoposide , and gemcitabine-based regimens.
Liposarcomas (particularly myxoid/round cell liposarcomas) and leiomyosarcomas appear to be sensitive to trabectedin, and liposarcomas are also sensitive to eribulin. (See 'Trabectedin' below and 'Sirolimus' below.)
●In contrast to virtually every other histology, angiosarcomas, particularly those arising on the scalp, are sensitive to taxanes. (See "Head and neck sarcomas", section on 'Treatment' and 'Taxanes and angiosarcoma' below.)
For many tumor types that do not respond to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy, research on molecular pathogenesis has provided crucial clues as to novel therapeutic strategies. For example, clinical trials conclusively demonstrate the impressive efficacy of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) imatinib and sunitinib for patients with advanced GIST, a disease for which there was previously no highly effective treatment options for metastatic disease. (See "Tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy for advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors".)
The insights gained from the study of imatinib and other TKIs in GIST have led to the identification of other TKIs that appear active in non-GIST STS. As examples:
●Benefit has been shown for sunitinib in patients with solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma, alveolar soft part sarcoma, clear cell sarcoma, and extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (at least those that carry the characteristic EWSR1-NR4A3 fusion gene); for the mechanistic (previously called mammalian) target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor sirolimus in patients with neoplasms with perivascular epithelioid cell differentiation (PEComas; including recurrent angiomyolipoma/lymphangioleiomyomatosis) that are characterized by dysregulated mTOR signaling; and for imatinib and nilotinib in patients with pigmented villonodular synovitis/tenosynovial giant cell tumor. (See 'New treatment strategies' below and "Antineoplastic therapy for miscellaneous benign diseases affecting soft tissue and bone", section on 'Tenosynovial giant cell tumor' and "Sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis: Treatment and prognosis" and "Solitary fibrous tumor" and "Giant cell tumor of bone" and "Pathogenetic factors in soft tissue and bone sarcomas", section on 'Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma'.)
●There are also data supporting activity of imatinib in patients with metastatic dermatofibroma protuberans and for sorafenib or imatinib in patients with desmoid tumors. However, there are better data for single agent liposomal doxorubicin, single agent vinorelbine and combination methotrexate/vinorelbine, or methotrexate/vinblastine in patients with desmoid tumors. (See "Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and staging" and "Desmoid tumors: Systemic therapy", section on 'Non-cytotoxic approaches'.)
●Emerging data suggest that sorafenib, an orally active multitargeted TKI that inhibits Raf kinase and blocks the intracellular portion of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor, may be an active agent for certain angiosarcomas, as well as perhaps some subtypes of leiomyosarcoma, although additional study is needed to confirm the initial reports. Furthermore, sunitinib and other multitargeted VEGF receptor inhibitors seem to be active agents for alveolar soft part sarcoma. The approval of pazopanib for advanced STS lends some evidence to the possibly important role of VEGF receptor and related pathways in the growth of other sarcoma subtypes. (See 'Pazopanib' below.)
These data have led to the emergence of the concept of histology-driven treatment rather than a "one size fits all" approach to therapy in patients with metastatic STS. (See 'Overview of the therapeutic approach' below.)
End points to define benefit — The specific endpoints that best reflect benefit from systemic therapy in metastatic STS remain unclear. Objective response rates, as judged by a decrease in the size of measurable lesions, are increasingly considered to be poor surrogates for benefit in this family of cancers. Even in cases where systemic treatment successfully induces massive tumor cell kill in vivo, hyalinized acellular tissue remains, leading to a falsely negative assessment of the true response to treatment and an underestimation of antitumor efficacy. The "disconnect" between objective tumor response and disease stabilization is particularly evident in studies of drugs like trabectedin and molecularly targeted therapies.
Increasing attention is being paid to other important indicators of clinical outcomes, such as progression-free survival, the progression-free rate at a specific time point (often 12 weeks), percentage survival at a given time point, overall survival, and disease stabilization. A therapeutic agent that is associated with a low objective antitumor response may slow tumor progression and prolong survival. Stabilization of disease is increasingly viewed as a realistic end point for metastatic STS. However, the generation of clinical and radiologic data to support these alternative end points requires rigorous attention to the consistency of follow-up.
OVERVIEW OF THE THERAPEUTIC APPROACH — Our approach to treatment selection for patients with metastatic soft tissue sarcoma other than a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is histology driven.
Initial therapy — Enrollment in a clinical trial is always preferred, if available. If a clinical trial option does not exist, the following represents our general approach to initial therapy:
●For advanced progressive angiosarcomas, we suggest a weekly taxane, doxorubicin alone, or pegylated liposomal doxorubicin monotherapy. Single agent gemcitabine or a gemcitabine-based combination is also a reasonable option. (See 'Taxanes and angiosarcoma' below and 'Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin' below.)
●For patients with advanced progressive alveolar soft part sarcoma, solitary fibrous tumor (SFT)/hemangiopericytoma, and clear cell sarcoma, we suggest a trial of sunitinib or pazopanib. For SFT/hemangiopericytoma, another reasonable option is temozolomide plus bevacizumab. (See 'Sunitinib' below and 'Pazopanib' below and "Solitary fibrous tumor", section on 'Cytotoxic chemotherapy'.)
●For patients who have advanced progressive neoplasms with perivascular epithelioid cell differentiation (PEComa), including recurrent angiomyolipoma/lymphangioleiomyomatosis, we suggest a trial of sirolimus. (See 'Sirolimus' below.)
●For tenosynovial giant cell tumor and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, we suggest imatinib or a trial of another tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that inhibits the macrophage colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) receptor. (See 'Imatinib' below and "Antineoplastic therapy for miscellaneous benign diseases affecting soft tissue and bone", section on 'Tenosynovial giant cell tumor' and "Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans: Treatment", section on 'Treatment of locally advanced, recurrent, and metastatic disease'.)
●For other histologies, the best regimen has not been established. Higher response rates are achieved by doxorubicin and ifosfamide-containing combinations but at the cost of more toxicity as compared with sequential single agents. A brief trial of two cycles of combination chemotherapy may permit the rapid distinction between patients with highly chemotherapy-sensitive disease and those for whom this approach will provide toxicity without benefit. (See 'Combination versus single agent therapy' below.)
For young symptomatic patients with an excellent performance status, we suggest combination, rather than sequential single agent, therapy. We prefer doxorubicin plus ifosfamide for most patients. (See 'Doxorubicin-based regimens' below.)
Whether initial therapy with a gemcitabine-based regimen is preferable to an anthracycline/ifosfamide combination for patients with any histologic type of soft tissue sarcoma is uncertain. At some institutions, an anthracycline alone or an anthracycline plus ifosfamide is the recommended first-line treatment for most patients. Data from the United Kingdom GeDDiS showed no significant difference in progression-free or overall survival and less toxicity with single agent doxorubicin than with gemcitabine-docetaxel . (See 'Gem/docetaxel versus doxorubicin alone' below.)
Others disagree, choosing gemcitabine-based therapy (eg, gemcitabine plus docetaxel) for first-line therapy of leiomyosarcoma and undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma/malignant fibrous histiocytoma (UPS/MFH). For other histologies (eg, synovial sarcoma), the response rate to gemcitabine-based therapy is close to zero. (See 'Gemcitabine-based combinations' below.)
Despite lower response rates, we suggest sequential single agent therapy (eg, doxorubicin followed by ifosfamide or other agents in succession) rather than combination therapy for patients with asymptomatic, low-volume, or slow-growing disease or a poor performance status. (See 'Combination versus single agent therapy' below.)
Treatment at progression — For most patients with progression on the first-line regimen, we prefer enrollment in a clinical trial if one is available. If a clinical trial option does not exist, and for patients who retain a good performance status, the following represents our general approach to treatment at progression:
●For patients with leiomyosarcomas and UPS/MFH who initially received a gemcitabine-based combination, an anthracycline alone or anthracycline combination is a reasonable alternative. (See 'Gem/docetaxel versus doxorubicin alone' below.)
●For patients who initially were treated with an anthracycline-based regimen and who have leiomyosarcoma or UPS/MFH, a gemcitabine-based regimen is reasonable.
●For patients with advanced or metastatic STS (other than liposarcoma) who progress after an anthracycline-containing regimen and after other chemotherapy, such as ifosfamide, gemcitabine, or gemcitabine combinations, we suggest pazopanib. (See 'Pazopanib' below.)
●Where commercially available (in virtually all countries except Brazil and Australia), we recommend trabectedin for the treatment for leiomyosarcomas and liposarcomas that have progressed after standard anthracycline or ifosfamide-based therapy. (See 'Trabectedin' below.)
EFFICACY OF CYTOTOXIC CHEMOTHERAPY — Most trials of conventional cytotoxic therapy were conducted in a variety of patients with different histologic subtypes of soft tissue sarcoma (STS), evaluating various doses and schedules; few have analyzed outcomes separately according to histology.
Single agent therapy — The only single agents that are consistently associated with response rates of more than 20 percent in metastatic STS are doxorubicin, epirubicin, and ifosfamide. Even for these agents, the range of objective activity between various small (and even larger) trials is impressive, demonstrating the variability in disease sensitivity (noted above) and the fact that any given STS patient population could serve as an important confounding variable for interpretation of drug efficacy.
Doxorubicin — The sensitivity of STS to systemic chemotherapy was first demonstrated with single agent doxorubicin in the early 1970s , and subsequent studies suggested a dose-response relationship. The threshold dose for optimal activity appears be ≥60 mg/m2 per cycle, usually administered once every three weeks, with lower doses associated with inferior antitumor activity . It is difficult to demonstrate a clinically meaningful dose-response relationship with single agent doxorubicin at doses beyond 75 mg/m2 per cycle, which has become the standard dose.
Even in modern multi-institutional series using 70 to 80 mg/m2 per cycle, there is significant variability in reported response rates, which range from 10 to 25 percent [20-26]. The vast majority are partial, rather than complete, responses .
Doxorubicin is associated with reversible myelosuppression, mucositis, alopecia, nausea and vomiting, and both acute and chronic cardiotoxicity. This drug has a relatively narrow therapeutic index; even small variations of dose beyond 75 mg/m2 can drastically worsen patient tolerance, and even 75 mg/m2 is considered by many patients to be significantly more toxic than 60 mg/m2. Infusional, rather than bolus, administration reduces the likelihood of cardiotoxicity. Other methods to diminish cardiotoxicity include the concomitant use of the cardioprotectant dexrazoxane or the use of liposome-encapsulated doxorubicin. (See "Cardiotoxicity of anthracycline-like chemotherapy agents".)
Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin — Liposomal encapsulation appears to improve the side effect profile of doxorubicin, thereby increasing the therapeutic index. The most widely used preparation (Doxil in the United States and Caelyx in Europe) is a large liposome with polyethylene glycol (PEG) anchored within the lipid bilayer, which acts as a hydrophilic coating to prolong the circulating half-life of the liposome by preventing degradation within the reticuloendothelial system. The toxicity profile is somewhat different from nonencapsulated doxorubicin, mainly consisting of an acute hypersensitivity-like reaction, in approximately 8 percent of patients, palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia ("hand-foot syndrome"), and esophagitis. (See "Cutaneous complications of conventional chemotherapy agents", section on 'Acral erythema (hand-foot syndrome)'.)
Liposomal anthracyclines are active in STS, but it is unclear if they are as efficacious as unencapsulated doxorubicin [21,28-30]. In a randomized phase II trial, Doxil (50 mg/m2 every four weeks) was compared with unencapsulated doxorubicin (75 mg/m2 every three weeks) . Although Doxil was well tolerated and appeared to have similar efficacy compared with doxorubicin, the response rates in both arms were low, 10 and 9 percent, respectively. Of note, there was a high proportion of gastrointestinal stomal tumor (GIST) in this study population, emphasizing the importance of disease subtype as a confounding factor in studies of chemotherapy efficacy. (See 'Histology-driven treatment' above.)
On the basis of this trial, rigorous clinical trial rules would have discarded both unencapsulated doxorubicin and Doxil as putatively "inactive" agents in STS, with response rates <20 percent. This would be a major error since doxorubicin has important clinical activity, proven over the past 30 years, in patients with advanced STS. These data underscore the poor correlation between objective response rate and clinical benefit, and the need for caution in interpreting any clinical trial of a new drug as "negative" based upon objective tumor shrinkage. (See 'End points to define benefit' above.)
Others report response rates of 50 percent or higher with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, which are durable in many patients . Doxil is a widely used agent for metastatic STS, particularly outside of the US and in patients aged 65 or older.
●An EORTC trial randomly assigned 334 patients with untreated metastatic STS to doxorubicin (75 mg/m2 on day 1) or epirubicin on one of two different schedules (50 mg/m2 daily for three days or 150 mg/m2 on day 1) . Neither epirubicin schedule was associated with better response rate or survival, and cardiovascular and hematologic toxicity were worse than with doxorubicin.
●In the second trial, 210 patients received either epirubicin or doxorubicin (both dosed at 75 mg/m2) once every three weeks . There was a slight trend toward a lower response rate with epirubicin (18 versus 25 percent), but response duration and median survival were similar.
Ifosfamide — Single agent ifosfamide has similar antitumor activity as doxorubicin. Response rates range from 7 to 41 percent (average 25 percent) among patients who previously failed a doxorubicin-based regimen [10,35-42].
Ifosfamide is challenging to administer, especially considering the variety of published doses and schedules [10,42]. Ifosfamide can be delivered over one or several consecutive days; infusional schedules may be less toxic than bolus administration [37-40,42,43]. Ifosfamide-related toxicities differ from those associated with doxorubicin; they include hemorrhagic cystitis, renal tubular acidosis, salt-wasting nephropathy, and central nervous system toxicity.
Concurrent administration of the uroprotectant mesna decreases hemorrhagic cystitis. Mesna binds to the active metabolite acrolein, decreasing the incidence of hemorrhagic cystitis (a different metabolite, chloroacetaldehyde, is thought to be responsible for the nephrotoxicity). Mesna is usually administered immediately following, and four and eight hours after each ifosfamide dose. (See "Ifosfamide nephrotoxicity" and "Cystitis in patients with cancer".)
A dose-response relationship has been shown for ifosfamide in metastatic STS; the threshold is approximately 6 g/m2 per cycle [10,39]. Additional responses can be demonstrated with ≥10 g/m2 per cycle [44,45].
At least one trial directly compared single agent doxorubicin (75 mg/m2 every three weeks) versus two different doses of ifosfamide (3 g/m2 over four hours daily for three days or 9 g/m2 over 72 hours by continuous infusion) in patients with advanced STS . Antitumor efficacy was similar, and toxicity was worse in both ifosfamide groups.
Taxanes and angiosarcoma — Taxanes as single agents are relatively inactive except in angiosarcoma. Paclitaxel is particularly useful for advanced angiosarcomas [30,47-52]. Weekly therapy was more active than every-three-week therapy in one report .
Doxorubicin (including pegylated liposomal doxorubicin) is also an active agent for angiosarcoma , and whether the antitumor efficacy of taxanes surpasses that of doxorubicin for this histology is unclear . (See 'Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin' above.)
Gemcitabine and other agents — Other conventional cytotoxic drugs with modest antitumor activity include vinorelbine [55,56], methotrexate , dacarbazine and temozolomide (particularly for leiomyosarcoma) [58-61], cisplatin , and carboplatin . All are associated with response rates <20 percent, but additional patients have stable disease, some for prolonged periods.
●In one report, gemcitabine administered by fixed-dose rate infusion (mg/m2/min) was associated with a partial response in 4 of 10 patients with non-GI leiomyosarcoma . Gemcitabine is also an active agent in patients with angiosarcoma .
●Other studies suggest little activity for gemcitabine monotherapy, both in previously treated and untreated patients [67-69]. In most of these studies, the drug was administered over 30 minutes, but a preliminary report of a French trial reported an objective response rate of only 5 percent in 20 patients treated with fixed-dose rate gemcitabine, but two-thirds had prolonged periods of stable disease .
●In contrast, combinations of gemcitabine (administered by dose rate infusion) with docetaxel, vinorelbine, or dacarbazine appear to be active in leiomyosarcoma of uterine and gastrointestinal origin, as well as other histologies. (See 'Gemcitabine-based combinations' below.)
As a single agent, topotecan has low activity overall, but response rates are modest in non-uterine leiomyosarcoma . Cyclophosphamide plus topotecan has activity in Ewing sarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma [73-75].
Combination chemotherapy — Many different combination regimens have been studied in patients with metastatic disease; most include doxorubicin and an alkylating agent.
The most commonly used multiagent regimens are (table 1) (see "Treatment protocols for soft tissue and bone sarcoma"):
These moderately intensive combination chemotherapy regimens are associated with overall response rates in the range of 16 to 46 percent, with complete responses in 5 to 10 percent. Approximately one-third of the complete responders (ie, 1 to 3 percent of patients with advanced STS overall) are long-term disease-free survivors [79,87-90].
Doxorubicin-based regimens — Several randomized studies and a pooled analysis have compared these combinations with each other and to single agent doxorubicin [20,22,23,26,57,78,86,87,91,92]. The following general conclusions can be drawn from these series:
●In most randomized prospective trials, combination regimens delivered at conventional doses, such as MAID, AIM (table 2 and table 3 and table 4), and AD, are associated with higher response rates (27 to 46 percent) than single agent doxorubicin, but fewer than 10 percent are complete. Responses are generally short lived (median approximately eight months).
●In randomized trials, no combination regimen has been associated with significantly longer survival than single agent doxorubicin, despite modestly higher response rates [92,93] and longer median progression-free survival (PFS) rates (7.4 versus 4.6 months) . (See 'Combination versus single agent therapy' below.)
●Although combination regimens are clearly associated with greater toxicity than single agent doxorubicin, strategies such as infusional administration of dacarbazine or doxorubicin over three to four days through a central venous catheter can markedly diminish the dacarbazine-associated emesis and doxorubicin cardiotoxicity. Hematopoietic growth factor support can significantly reduce the myelosuppression associated with MAID  and AIM, although in the preliminary report of EORTC 62012, in which all patients received pegfilgrastim as primary prophylaxis, the rate of febrile neutropenia was still quite high (46 versus 14 percent with single agent doxorubicin alone) . (See "Cardiotoxicity of anthracycline-like chemotherapy agents" and "Use of granulocyte colony stimulating factors in adult patients with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and conditions other than acute leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, and hematopoietic cell transplantation".)
Combination versus single agent therapy — Based upon the above considerations, the benefit of multiagent, compared with single agent doxorubicin-based chemotherapy, for advanced STS remains controversial. The goal of therapy is an important consideration. Many of the clinical trials noted above have enrolled patients with "advanced" STS, which may include bulky unresectable, but not metastatic, disease. The utility and rationale for aggressive preoperative combination chemotherapy is quite different in this setting than for patients with multifocal metastatic disease. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy may shrink a large tumor and permit subsequent locoregional therapy, even possibly with curative intent. In contrast, in the setting of multifocal metastatic disease, the goal of therapy is palliation. It is difficult to differentiate between these clinical settings in many reported clinical trials. (See "Adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy for soft tissue sarcoma of the extremities".)
Although combination chemotherapy is an accepted practice standard in the US, it is not necessarily the first-line approach to metastatic STS in other parts of the world.
The above data, specifically the lack of evidence supporting an overall survival benefit from combination chemotherapy, compared with single agent doxorubicin, for patients with metastatic disease , suggest that single agent doxorubicin is the benchmark against which newer single and multiagent regimens must be tested. Sequential administration of active single chemotherapy agents may maximize the duration of disease control and minimize treatment-associated toxicities.
However, initial combination chemotherapy may be of benefit for selected patients, for example, a patient with acute pain or an immediate life-threatening problem (eg, impending bronchial obstruction); in this case, the greater likelihood of an objective response justifies the increased toxicity of combination therapy in an otherwise healthy patient.
Another argument in favor of multiagent chemotherapy in patients with good performance status is that complete responses are more likely than with single agent regimens. Although few patients with unresectable metastatic STS will be long-term survivors, the achievement of a complete response to chemotherapy is the most powerful predictor .
Gemcitabine plus docetaxel — Activity for gemcitabine plus docetaxel (table 5) was initially reported in a study of 34 patients with leiomyosarcoma of uterine (n = 29) or gastrointestinal (GI, n = 5) origin ; 53 percent had an objective response, including two of the five with GI leiomyosarcoma. More recent data suggest that this regimen may have a broader range of activity, although response rates appear to be lower in histologies other than leiomyosarcoma [82,98]. As an example, a retrospective review of 133 patients treated with gemcitabine and docetaxel included 76 leiomyosarcomas and 57 other histologies . Only 17 percent were chemotherapy-naive. The overall response rate was 18 percent (24 versus 10 percent for leiomyosarcoma and other histologies, respectively). At 12 and 24 months, 51 and 15 percent of patients were still alive, respectively.
Lower doses (particularly of docetaxel) may be needed for patients with prior radiation to fields encompassing large amounts of marrow.
Gem/docetaxel versus gemcitabine alone — As noted above, gemcitabine alone is an active single agent in metastatic STS when administered as a fixed rate infusion. The superiority of gemcitabine/docetaxel over gemcitabine alone was addressed in an open-label multicenter phase II trial comparing gemcitabine with and without docetaxel that used a novel Bayesian adaptive randomization strategy . This allows for continuous outcomes monitoring, incrementally assigning more patients to the superior treatment arm, while accounting for possible treatment-subgroup interactions (eg, histology, prior radiation therapy [RT] versus none, performance status ).
The treatment arms were gemcitabine alone (1200 mg/m2 days 1 and 8 every 21 days; 900 mg/m2 in patients with prior pelvic RT) or gemcitabine (900 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8; 675 mg/m2 if prior pelvic RT) plus docetaxel (100 mg/m2 on day 8; 75 mg/m2 if prior pelvic RT), with courses repeated every 21 days. In both arms, gemcitabine was given via fixed dose rate infusion (10 mg/m2/min). All patients received growth factor support.
Forty-nine patients were adaptively randomized to gemcitabine alone and 73 to gemcitabine plus docetaxel. The primary endpoint (tumor response, a complete or partial response or stable disease for at least 24 weeks) was met by 27 versus 32 percent of patients receiving gemcitabine alone and combined therapy, respectively. The objective response rate with combined therapy was higher (16 versus 8 percent), as was PFS (6.2 versus 3 months) and overall survival (17.9 versus 11.5 months). Patients with leiomyosarcoma and undifferentiated/unclassified STS (previously included in the broad category of "malignant fibrous histiocytoma," a subset of which is the undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma variant ) appeared to derive the most benefit. However, these benefits came at the cost of greater toxicity (particularly edema and constitutional symptoms). Significantly more patients receiving combined therapy discontinued treatment due to toxicity. (See "Clinical presentation, histopathology, diagnostic evaluation, and staging of soft tissue sarcoma", section on 'Histopathology'.)
On the other hand, the benefit of combined therapy over gemcitabine alone, particularly for non-uterine leiomyosarcomas, was called into question by the results of a randomized phase II trial in which 90 patients with metastatic leiomyosarcoma of uterine (n = 46) or non-uterine (n = 44) origin were randomly assigned to gemcitabine alone (1000 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, and 15 of each 28-day cycle) or with docetaxel (100 mg/m2 on day 8 of a 21-day cycle), with primary prophylaxis with a granulocyte colony-stimulating factor . Among patients with uterine leiomyosarcoma, response rate was only modestly higher with combined therapy (24 versus 19 percent), and median PFS was not better (4.7 versus 5.5 months). Among those with non-uterine leiomyosarcomas, the response rate to combined therapy was low (5 versus 14 percent with gemcitabine alone), and median PFS was only 3.8 months (versus 6.3 months for gemcitabine monotherapy). Patients receiving single agent gemcitabine experienced less toxicity.
Although the authors concluded that both treatments were similarly efficacious, at least for uterine leiomyosarcomas, the trial was conducted as a parallel set of two phase II studies, and the study lacked power to determine which treatment was better . An important finding was that a high proportion of patients in both arms (>40 percent, highest in the non-uterine leiomyosarcoma group) had durable stable disease, and the six-month PFS rate in all groups was ≥47 percent.
Gem/docetaxel versus doxorubicin alone — Whether initial therapy with a gemcitabine-based regimen is preferable to anthracycline alone or an anthracycline/ifosfamide combination for patients with leiomyosarcoma or any other histology of sarcoma is uncertain. A preliminary report of a randomized trial comparing combined gemcitabine/docetaxel versus doxorubicin alone in 257 previously untreated patients with a variety of histologies of advanced/metastatic STS was presented at the 2015 American Society of Clinical Oncology annual meeting . Doxorubicin was less toxic and easier to administer than gemcitabine/docetaxel, and the proportion of patients who were progression-free at 24 weeks (the primary endpoint) was identical (46 percent in both groups); median overall survival slightly favored doxorubicin (71 versus 63 weeks, hazard ratio for death 1.07, 95% CI 0.77-1.49).
Results were not stratified according to histologic subtype. It should be noted that undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma/malignant fibrous histiocytoma (UPS/MFH) was underrepresented in this trial. In our experience, UPS/MFH is the one histologic subtype that responds better to gemcitabine/docetaxel, and we would choose this combination for first-line therapy in this group. For other histologies, such as leiomyosarcoma, there is no specific advantage to upfront gemcitabine/docetaxel, and single agent doxorubicin or doxorubicin plus ifosfamide represent appropriate first-line regimens.
Gemcitabine plus dacarbazine — The superiority of gemcitabine plus dacarbazine (DTIC) over DTIC alone was shown in a phase II trial in which 113 patients with previously treated STS were randomly assigned to DTIC (1200 mg/m2 every three weeks) or fixed dose rate gemcitabine (1800 mg/m2 at 10 mg/m2/min) followed by DTIC (500 mg/m2) every two weeks . Combined therapy was associated with significantly higher median PFS (4.2 versus 2 months), overall survival (16.8 versus 8.2 months), and overall clinical benefit (objective response plus stable disease, 49 versus 25 percent). Severe toxicity was uncommon with combined treatment; grade 3 or 4 neutropenia occurred in over 30 percent of patients, but febrile neutropenia was rare. Grade 1 or 2 asthenia, emesis, and stomatitis were the most frequent nonhematologic effects.
Gemcitabine plus vinorelbine — Activity for vinorelbine (25 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8) plus fixed dose rate gemcitabine (800 mg/m2 over 90 minutes days 1 and 8) was shown in a single-institution trial of 40 patients with unresectable or metastatic STS . There was one complete and four partial responses, and five patients had stable disease for at least four months (clinical benefit rate 25 percent). Three of the five responders had leiomyosarcoma, two of uterine origin, one had a myxofibrosarcoma, and one a small round blue cell tumor. One-half of all patients had grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxicity, fewer than 5 percent with febrile neutropenia. Whether these results are better than can be achieved with gemcitabine/docetaxel requires a randomized trial.
Dose intensification — In view of the demonstrated dose-response relationship with doxorubicin and ifosfamide, higher than standard dose chemotherapy has been studied in STS. Higher doses of doxorubicin and ifosfamide can be administered in combination regimens with the support of hematopoietic growth factors [76,91,105-110] or autologous hematopoietic stem cells [111-115]; however, there is no clear overall survival benefit for higher, as compared with standard, dosing regimens.
These approaches must be considered investigational for metastatic STS and performed only in the context of innovative exploratory new trials or appropriately controlled phase III clinical trials.
NEW TREATMENT STRATEGIES — Given the limited efficacy of conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy, soft tissue sarcoma (STS) represents a fertile ground for the field of drug development. Clinical trials in a number of areas have shown promise in metastatic STS.
Performing valid clinical trials in STS is challenging because the different histologic types can behave differently; as a result, clinical trials must be stratified by histologic subtype for adequate interpretation of results. In order to generate studies of sufficient size and power, large-scale collaborations are required on a national and international level. Such collaborations are already in place in the United States and among the nations of Europe, in Scandinavia, Italy, and Canada. With these collaborations, it is hoped that further research will rapidly translate research findings into the novel therapeutics which are so desperately required by patients with sarcomas.
Drugs approved for sarcoma in the US, Europe, or Canada
Imatinib — The most dramatic example of translation of molecular understanding of STS to a novel therapy is with the use of the selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) imatinib to treat gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Unfortunately, this agent is of limited utility for treatment of non-GIST STS, with the exception of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, desmoid tumors, and tenosynovial giant cell tumor/pigmented villonodular synovitis (TGCT/PVNS). However, there are better data for initial therapy with single agent liposomal doxorubicin, single agent vinorelbine, and combination methotrexate/vinblastine in patients with desmoid tumors. The use of imatinib for these histologic soft tissue tumor types is discussed in detail separately. (See "Tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy for advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors" and "Antineoplastic therapy for miscellaneous benign diseases affecting soft tissue and bone", section on 'Tenosynovial giant cell tumor' and "Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and staging" and "Desmoid tumors: Systemic therapy".)
Trabectedin — We recommend trabectedin for treatment of advanced liposarcoma and leiomyosarcoma in patients who have previously been treated with at least an anthracycline-containing chemotherapy combination.
Trabectedin (ecteinascidin, ET-743), which is now synthesized but was originally isolated from the Caribbean sea sponge Ecteinascidia turbinate, kills cells by poisoning the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) nucleotide excision repair machinery . Trabectedin is an active agent for advanced STS, although the objective response rate, by conventional criteria, is fairly low [117-121]. Response rates have been highest in the myxoid/round cell liposarcoma and leiomyosarcoma subtypes.
Phase II studies of trabectedin (1.5 mg/m2 over 24 hours every 21 days), performed both in patients failing prior chemotherapy and in those with previously untreated disease, have been promising [118-120,124,125]; the largest of these studies randomly assigned 76 patients with advanced, predominantly pretreated, translocation-associated sarcoma (main subtypes were myxoid round-cell liposarcoma and synovial sarcoma) to best supportive care versus trabectedin (1.2 mg/m2 over 24 hours on day 1 every 21 days) . The primary endpoint, median progression-free survival (PFS), was significantly longer with trabectedin (5.6 versus 0.9 months, hazard ratio [HR] 0.07, 95% CI 0.03-0.16). The most common drug-related adverse effects for patients treated with trabectedin were nausea (89 percent, 8 percent grade 3), decreased appetite (58 percent, 8 percent grade 3), neutropenia (83 percent, 67 percent grade 3 or 4, with febrile neutropenia in 14 percent), and increased alanine aminotransferase (67 percent, 61 percent grade 3 or 4).
Administration of the drug over 24 hours every three weeks was significantly superior to weekly dosing over three hours in a randomized phase II trial conducted in patients with previously treated advanced liposarcoma or leiomyosarcoma (median time to tumor progression 3.7 versus 2.3 months) . This was the dose chosen for the randomized phase III multicenter United States trial, which compared trabectedin (starting dose 1.5 mg/m2 over 24 hours on day 1) with dacarbazine (starting dose 1000 mg/m2 as a 20- to 120-minute infusion on day 1) every 21 days in 518 patients with advanced leiomyosarcoma or adipocytic sarcoma previously treated with conventional chemotherapy . While median overall survival (the primary endpoint) was not significantly different with trabectedin (12.4 versus 12.9 months), there was a significant improvement in PFS with trabectedin (median 4.2 versus 1.5 months). The objective response rate was slightly, but not significantly, higher with trabectedin (10 versus 7 percent), but the clinical benefit rate (reflecting both objective disease response and durable stable disease) was significantly higher with trabectedin (34 versus 19 percent). Benefit was seen in both uterine and non-uterine leiomyosarcomas and in all liposarcoma subtypes, although the benefit compared with dacarbazine was most pronounced (median PFS 5.6 versus 1.5 months) in the myxoid/round cell liposarcoma subset and marginal (median PFS 2.2 versus 1.9 months) in the dedifferentiated subgroup. The most common serious (grade 3 or 4) adverse effects were neutropenia (37 percent), thrombocytopenia (17 percent), anemia (14 percent), and transient elevations in aminotransferases (26 percent elevated alanine aminotransferase [ALT] and 13 percent elevated aspartate aminotransferase [AST]).
Based upon these results, trabectedin was approved in the United States for the treatment of patients with unresectable or metastatic liposarcoma or leiomyosarcoma who have received a prior anthracycline-containing regimen . Trabectedin carries a warning about the risk for severe and fatal neutropenic sepsis, rhabdomyolysis, hepatotoxicity, skin and soft tissue necrosis following extravasation , and heart failure. Dexamethasone pretreatment (20 mg IV 30 minutes prior to each dose) is recommended to ameliorate drug-related hepatotoxicity [129,130].
A particularly high response rate has been seen in patients with advanced pretreated myxoid/round cell liposarcoma (MRCL); in one study of 51 such patients, 51 percent had either a complete or partial response, and 88 percent were progression-free at six months . In a later analysis of 32 of these patients, followed for an average of 25 months, the median PFS duration was 28 months . Tumor response was marked by early radiologic alterations (decreased tumor density on computed tomography [CT] or decrease in magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] contrast enhancement) followed by delayed tumor shrinkage . The benefit of trabectedin in this subtype is consistent with clinical activity reported with this agent in patients with the so-called "translocation-related" sarcomas, of which the MRCL variant is included . (See "Pathogenetic factors in soft tissue and bone sarcomas", section on 'Chromosomal translocations'.)
Others report a high objective response rate (60 percent) and a high rate of disease control overall (92 percent) with a tolerable side effect profile for trabectedin in combination with doxorubicin for first-line treatment of leiomyosarcoma . Median overall survival was 20.2 months in the uterine leiomyosarcoma cohort and 34.5 months in the soft tissue leiomyosarcoma cohort. While these results seem better than those achievable with single-agent doxorubicin or combination doxorubicin, and/or ifosfamide-based chemotherapy (median survival 9 to 12 months), randomized trials are needed to confirm benefit in this subgroup. One randomized phase II trial failed to confirm a survival benefit for combined trabectedin plus doxorubicin versus doxorubicin alone as first-line therapy in 115 patients with advanced STS of a variety of histologic subtypes (median overall survival 13.3 versus 13.7 months) . While the study lacked power to assess outcomes in histologic subgroups, patients with leiomyosarcoma (35 of the 115 enrolled patients) had a better median PFS (7 versus 3.9 months) and overall survival (24.2 versus 10.3 months) as compared with other histologies. Nevertheless, appropriately powered randomized trials are needed in this subgroup before it can be concluded that combination therapy is better than doxorubicin alone for patients with leiomyosarcoma.
Preliminary work suggests that the sensitivity of myxoid liposarcomas to trabectedin may be related to the unique presence of a fusion oncoprotein that results from chromosomal translocation in this disease, and the ability of trabectedin to interfere with the ability of some fusion proteins to bind to promoters . These data suggest that trabectedin represents a unique form of molecularly targeted therapy. (See "Pathogenetic factors in soft tissue and bone sarcomas".)
Pazopanib — For patients with advanced or metastatic STS (other than liposarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, or GIST) who progress after an anthracycline-containing regimen and, typically, after other chemotherapy such as ifosfamide, gemcitabine, or gemcitabine combinations, we recommend pazopanib.
Pazopanib is a multitargeted, orally active, small molecule inhibitor of several TKs, including the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha and beta (PDGFRA and PDGFRB). Single-agent pazopanib showed activity in a phase II clinical trial that included various STS subtypes . Pazopanib met the primary endpoint for activity in three of the four histology-specific cohorts: leiomyosarcomas, synovial sarcomas, and other eligible STS types, but not liposarcoma. Based upon those results, a worldwide, randomized, double-blinded, phase III study (the PALETTE trial) was designed by EORTC and other investigators to compare pazopanib (800 mg daily) versus placebo in 369 patients with a variety of histologic subtypes (leiomyosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor [MPNST], vascular STS, sarcoma not otherwise specified, but not adipocytic sarcomas or GIST) whose disease had progressed during or after first-line chemotherapy (including an anthracycline) . The median PFS was significantly higher in the pazopanib group (4.6 versus 1.6 months), and benefit was consistent across all histologic subtypes. There was no significant difference in overall survival (12.5 versus 10.7 months, HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.67-1.1) . The best overall response was partial response in 6 versus 0 percent of the pazopanib and placebo groups, respectively, and stable disease in 67 versus 38 percent.
The most common grade 3 or 4 treatment-related toxicities were fatigue, hypertension, diarrhea, anorexia, and transient elevation in liver function tests. A drop in left ventricular ejection fraction occurred in 16 patients treated with pazopanib, compared with three cases in the placebo group (6.5 versus 2.4 percent); only three cases were symptomatic. Venous thromboembolism was more common in the pazopanib group (5 versus 2 percent, all grades). In addition, pneumothorax occurred in eight patients in the pazopanib group (3 percent), possibly due to necrosis of pleural lesions. This toxicity profile did not translate into significantly worse global health status during treatment , Treatment-related toxicity in patients treated with TKIs that target vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is discussed in more detail separately. (See "Toxicity of molecularly targeted antiangiogenic agents: Cardiovascular effects" and "Toxicity of molecularly targeted antiangiogenic agents: Non-cardiovascular effects".)
Based upon these data, in April 2012, pazopanib was approved in the United States for treatment of patients with advanced STS (but not for adipocytic or GIST) who have received prior chemotherapy. Given the risk for potentially fatal hepatotoxicity, close monitoring of liver function tests is recommended, particularly in the first nine weeks of therapy. (See "Chemotherapy hepatotoxicity and dose modification in patients with liver disease", section on 'Pazopanib'.)
The utility of pazopanib in liposarcomas remains uncertain; at least two prospective trials of pazopanib in this STS subtype are underway. The efficacy of pazopanib in advanced GIST is addressed elsewhere. (See "Tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy for advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors", section on 'Sorafenib and other TKIs'.)
The solubility of pazopanib is pH dependent, and an elevated gastric pH may decrease bioavailability . The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved prescribing information recommends against concomitant use of drugs that raise gastric pH (proton pump inhibitors or histamine H2 receptor antagonists) in patients receiving pazopanib . Short-acting antacids could be considered in place of these agents, but dosing of antacids and pazopanib should be separated by several hours.
Eribulin — Eribulin inhibits microtubules via a mechanism that is distinct from other microtubule-targeting agents, such as taxanes. Modest efficacy in leiomyosarcoma (LMS) and adipocytic sarcomas was suggested in a phase II trial in which 128 patients with a variety of sarcoma histotypes all received eribulin (1.4 mg/m2 IV on days 1 and 8 of every three week cycle) . Twelve of 38 patients with LMS (32 percent), 15 of 32 patients with adipocytic sarcoma (47 percent), 4 four of 19 patients with synovial sarcoma (21 percent), and 5 of 26 with other sarcoma histotypes (19 percent) achieved the primary endpoint (PFS at 12 weeks).
In a multicenter phase III trial comparing eribulin (1.4 mg/m2 IV days 1 and 8) with dacarbazine (850 to 1200 mg/m2 IV day 1) every 21 days in 452 patients with advanced leiomyosarcoma or adipocytic sarcoma previously treated with an anthracycline, median overall survival, the primary endpoint, was modestly, but significantly, better with eribulin (13.5 versus 11.5 months, HR for death 0.77, 95% CI 0.62-0.95), although median PFS was the same in both arms (2.6 months) . In a preplanned exploratory subgroup analysis, treatment benefits for eribulin were limited to patients with liposarcoma (median overall survival 15.6 versus 8.4 months) and not leiomyosarcoma (median overall survival 12.8 versus 12.3 months) . Treatment-emergent adverse effects that were more common with eribulin included neutropenia (43 versus 24 percent), pyrexia (28 versus 14 percent), peripheral sensory neuropathy (21 versus 4 percent), and alopecia (35 versus 3 percent).
Based upon these data, eribulin was approved in the United States in January 2016 for treatment of unresectable or metastatic liposarcoma in patients who received prior anthracycline-containing chemotherapy . The recommended dose and schedule is 1.4 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 of each 21-day cycle.
Sirolimus — For patients who have advanced neoplasms with perivascular epithelioid cell differentiation (PEComa), such as recurrent angiomyolipoma/lymphangioleiomyomatosis, we suggest a trial of sirolimus if a clinical trial option does not exist and the patient has demonstrated progressive disease.
The PEComa family of tumors consists of related mesenchymal neoplasms that exhibit myomelanocytic differentiation and share a distinctive cell type, the perivascular epithelioid cell (PEC) [147-149]. The major members of this family are lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a disease predominantly presenting as numerous nodular, cystic, and interstitial pulmonary lesions in premenopausal women; angiomyolipoma (AML), commonly identified as an asymptomatic renal lesion with evidence of vascular, muscle, or adipocytic differentiation; and PEComa, an epithelioid malignancy typically arising in the gastrointestinal tract, retroperitoneum, uterus, or somatic soft tissues and intimately related to blood vessel walls. Although most PEComas are benign, a subset exhibit malignant behavior, with locally invasive recurrences or development of distant metastases most commonly in the lung. (See "Sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis: Epidemiology and pathogenesis".)
In many instances, tumors of the PEComa family share dysregulated activation of the mechanistic (previously called mammalian) target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling through mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes, which may be inherited (tuberous sclerosus complex) or sporadic [150-155]. Activation results in cellular proliferation and release of lymphangiogenic growth factors. (See "Tuberous sclerosis complex: Genetics, clinical features, and diagnosis" and "Sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis: Epidemiology and pathogenesis", section on 'Pathogenesis'.)
Benefit has been shown for the mTOR inhibitor sirolimus in patients with PEComas, including recurrent angiomyolipoma/lymphangioleiomyomatosis [150,156-159]. As an example, in one report of three patients with metastatic PEComa, radiographic responses to sirolimus were observed in all three, which was durable in two. Sirolimus is approved in the United States for treatment of pulmonary LAM . (See "Sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis: Treatment and prognosis".)
Studies supporting some activity using drugs with regulatory approval for other cancers
Sunitinib — We suggest sunitinib for first-line treatment for patients with advanced alveolar soft part sarcoma, solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma, and clear cell sarcoma if a clinical trial option does not exist, and the patient has demonstrated progressive disease.
The activity of sunitinib for most histologic types of non-GIST sarcomas is limited [161,162]. However, sunitinib appears active against the rare and chemotherapy-refractory alveolar soft part sarcoma and has anecdotal activity against solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma and clear cell sarcoma [161,163-167]. In a case series, two of four patients with progressive metastatic alveolar soft part sarcoma had an objective partial response with sunitinib 37.5 mg daily (one sustained for 12 months), and one had stable disease for at least three months . Treatment was reasonably well tolerated. (See "Solitary fibrous tumor", section on 'Molecularly targeted agents'.)
Pazopanib is a similar compound that is expected to have similar activity in these histologic STS subtypes, but data are not reported specifically regarding its utility. Nevertheless, it represents a reasonable alternative. (See 'Pazopanib' above.)
Sorafenib — Sorafenib is another multitargeted TKI that has limited activity in metastatic non-GIST STS, as evidenced by the following reports:
●In a phase II trial of 120 patients with six different histologic types of STS who received sorafenib 400 mg twice daily, there was one objective partial response among 37 leiomyosarcomas, one complete and four partial responses among 37 angiosarcomas (14 percent), and no objective responses in MPNST, malignant fibrous histiocytoma (most of which are now reclassified as undifferentiated/unclassified STS ), synovial sarcoma, or other histotypes . Treatment-related toxicity was not trivial, despite the use of the US FDA-approved dose and schedule. Over 60 percent of patients required dose reduction, the majority due to dermatologic toxicity. There were three grade 5 toxicities (one GI hemorrhage, one intestinal perforation, and one fatal tension pneumothorax in a patient with pulmonary metastases).
●More modest activity against angiosarcoma was seen in another phase II trial of 51 patients with advanced vascular sarcomas, high-grade liposarcoma, and leiomyosarcoma . Six of the eight patients with some form of "vascular sarcoma" had prolonged periods of stable disease in this nonrandomized trial, although no objective antitumor responses were observed. Median PFS in this group of "vascular sarcomas" was five months, compared with two to three months for the other sarcoma histologies. Despite the same dose, the toxicity profile was more favorable than seen in the prior study; 50 percent required at least one dose reduction, but there were no grade 5 toxicities.
However, sorafenib may be of modest benefit in patients with advanced epithelioid hemangioendothelioma. In a phase II study of 15 patients with progressive disease (12 with metastatic disease) who were treated with sorafenib 800 mg daily, there were two partial responses lasting two and nine months, and the nine-month PFS rate was 31 percent (4 of 13 patients) . The PFS data may be difficult to interpret due to the multifocality of disease that is typically present and the often more indolent nature of this entity compared with other metastatic STS.
Regorafenib — Regorafenib is an orally active inhibitor of angiogenic (including the VEGFRs 1 to 3), stromal, and oncogenic receptor TKs. It is structurally similar to sorafenib and targets a variety of kinases implicated in angiogenic and tumor growth-promoting pathways. It is approved for refractory GIST but not for non-GIST STS subtypes. (See "Tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy for advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors", section on 'Regorafenib'.)
Potential activity for regorafenib in 181 patients with liposarcoma, leiomyosarcomas, synovial sarcomas, and other types of STS previously treated with doxorubicin, trabectedin, ifosfamide, and/or pazopanib was suggested in a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial of regorafenib (160 mg per day for 21 of each 28-day cycle) . In a preliminary report presented at the 2016 annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, compared to placebo, there was a significant benefit for PFS with regorafenib treatment in all subgroups but liposarcoma, and there were four objective responses, one in synovial sarcoma, two in angiosarcoma, and one in solitary fibrous tumor. The most common adverse events, seen in more than one-third of in the regorafenib-treated patients, were asthenia, diarrhea, mucositis, acral erythema, anorexia, and arterial hypertension.
Importantly, only six patients had received prior pazopanib. In our view, these data support the view that broad spectrum VEGFR TKIs have activity in subsets of non-adipocytic STS, but there are no data to support the use of regorafenib over the approved option of pazopanib. Additional experience with regorafenib for non-liposarcoma non-GIST STS subtypes after failure of pazopanib is needed.
Cediranib — Cediranib is a potent oral inhibitor of all three VEGFRs. Activity in alveolar soft part sarcoma was suggested in a phase II trial of 46 patients with unresectable disease . The objective response rate was 35 percent, and 60 percent had stable disease; the six-month disease control rate was 84 percent. Cediranib is not yet commercially available in any country.
Other available drugs, such as sunitinib or pazopanib, are active for alveolar soft part sarcomas after failure of other therapy and represent a non-clinical trial option for this diagnosis. (See 'Sunitinib' above and 'Pazopanib' above.)
Bevacizumab — Bevacizumab is a monoclonal antibody targeting VEGF. The combination of bevacizumab plus doxorubicin was evaluated in 17 anthracycline-naive patients with metastatic STS . Although there were only two partial responses (lasting for 21 to 36 weeks, both in patients with uterine leiomyosarcoma), 11 had stable disease for 12 weeks or more. Of concern, six patients developed grade 2 cardiac toxicity at cumulative doxorubicin doses of 75 to 300 mg/m2.
Given that efficacy was not substantially different from that expected with doxorubicin alone and the worrisome cardiotoxicity, bevacizumab has been largely abandoned, except in highly vascular tumors such as angiosarcoma. However, the available data are quite limited:
●In a phase II trial of bevacizumab in 32 patients with metastatic or locally advanced angiosarcoma or epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, four patients (two angiosarcoma and two epithelioid hemangioendothelioma) had a partial response (17 percent), while 50 percent had tumor stabilization with a mean time to tumor progression of 26 weeks .
●The multicenter randomized phase II ANGIOTAX-PLUS trial evaluated weekly paclitaxel, with or without bevacizumab, in 50 patients with advanced primary or radiation-induced angiosarcoma, 16 of whom had received prior anthracycline chemotherapy . The addition of bevacizumab did not lead to higher rates of being progression-free at six months (57 versus 54 percent), longer median PFS, or overall survival (15.9 versus 19.5 months).
Olaratumab — Olaratumab is an investigational human immunoglobulin G subclass 1 (IgG1) monoclonal antibody that binds to PDGFRA and blocks PDGF ligands from binding. Although the influence of PDGFRA and PDGF signaling pathways in STS are not completely understood, PDGFRA signaling in stromal tumor cells stimulates angiogenesis in a VEGF-independent manner and exhibits tumorigenic properties . Antitumor efficacy for olaratumab against a variety of STS histologic subtypes was suggested in an open-label randomized phase II study comparing doxorubicin with and without olaratumab . Patients with locally advanced or unresectable STS not previously treated with doxorubicin were eligible; the predominant histology was leiomyosarcoma (38 percent of enrolled patients), followed by undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma and liposarcoma (17 and 18 percent, respectively). Patients were randomly assigned to doxorubicin (75 mg/m2 on day 1 every 21 days for a maximum of eight courses) plus olaratumab (15 mg/kg on days 1 and 8 every 21 days) with the option to continue to an antibody alone after 24 weeks or to doxorubicin alone (same dose), in which patients with disease progression could be treated with olaratumab. Combination therapy was associated with a modest and borderline-significant gain in median PFS (the primary endpoint; 6.6 versus 4.1 months; HR for progression 0.67, 95% CI 0.44-1.02, p = 0.05). However, despite crossover to olaratumab in the doxorubicin monotherapy group, initial combination therapy was also associated with a significant near doubling of median overall survival (26.5 versus 14.7 months; HR for death 0.46, 95% CI 0.30-0.71), which was consistent across all subgroups, including histologic subtype and the presence or absence of tumoral expression of PDGFRA. Inexplicably, the survival advantage for initial combination therapy seemed more pronounced in the subgroup of patients with a shorter disease duration (<15 months). The objective response rate was similarly low in both groups (18 versus 12 percent), and the response duration was similar (8.3 versus 8.2 months). Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia, mucositis, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea were more common with combined therapy. The reason why the survival benefit far exceeded the gain in PFS is unclear; differences in the pace of progression prior to study enrollment might have contributed.
Palbociclib — More than 90 percent of well-differentiated or dedifferentiated liposarcomas have amplification of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), and a modest degree of benefit from the selective CDK4/CDK6 inhibitor palbociclib was suggested in a phase II open label trial (one complete response among 35 assessable patients, 12-week PFS 57 percent) . Randomized trials are needed to confirm benefit relative to other available therapies, such as eribulin.
INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS — UpToDate offers two types of patient education materials, "The Basics" and "Beyond the Basics." The Basics patient education pieces are written in plain language, at the 5th to 6th grade reading level, and they answer the four or five key questions a patient might have about a given condition. These articles are best for patients who want a general overview and who prefer short, easy-to-read materials. Beyond the Basics patient education pieces are longer, more sophisticated, and more detailed. These articles are written at the 10th to 12th grade reading level and are best for patients who want in-depth information and are comfortable with some medical jargon.
Here are the patient education articles that are relevant to this topic. We encourage you to print or e-mail these topics to your patients. (You can also locate patient education articles on a variety of subjects by searching on "patient info" and the keyword(s) of interest.)
●Basics topics (see "Patient education: Soft tissue sarcoma (The Basics)")
SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS — Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are a heterogeneous group of rare tumors arising from mesenchymal cells at all body sites. While in the past these tumors were all "lumped" together and treated similarly, consensus is emerging that the selection of treatment should be histology driven, particularly in the setting of advanced disease. (See 'Histology-driven treatment' above.)
For the majority of patients, treatment is palliative and not curative. Surgical resection of metastatic disease can provide long-term relapse-free survival and perhaps cure in selected patients, the majority of whom have isolated pulmonary metastatic disease. (See "Surgical treatment and other localized therapy for metastatic soft tissue sarcoma".)
Meaningful symptom palliation and even prolongation of survival may accompany even a partial or minor response to systemic therapy. The following represents our general approach to advanced unresectable non-gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) STS. Treatment of patients with advanced GIST is discussed separately. (See "Tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy for advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors".)
●Patients with advanced unresectable STS are appropriate candidates for clinical trials to identify more active single agents, combinations, or novel approaches. If participation in clinical trials is not feasible, conventional systemic therapy is an appropriate option for selected patients.
●For asymptomatic patients with unresectable disease and low-grade histologies that are associated with only a minor response to chemotherapy, we suggest deferring therapy with close interval surveillance to determine the pace of disease (Grade 2C). Constant clinical vigilance is imperative to avoid potentially life-threatening or painful adverse consequences from occult tumor progression.
●For symptomatic patients and those with chemotherapy-sensitive histologies (eg, synovial sarcoma, myxoid liposarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, high-grade pleomorphic unclassified sarcoma), histology, clinical judgment, and patient preference influence the selection of the appropriate regimen.
Choice of initial therapy — We choose initial therapy based upon histology:
●For patients with advanced alveolar soft part sarcoma, solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma, and clear cell sarcoma, we suggest a trial of sunitinib or pazopanib, if a clinical trial option does not exist and the patient has demonstrated progressive disease (Grade 2C). (See 'Sorafenib' above and 'Pazopanib' above.)
●For patients who have advanced neoplasms with perivascular epithelioid cell differentiation (PEComa), including recurrent angiomyolipoma/lymphangioleiomyomatosis, we suggest a trial of sirolimus if a clinical trial option does not exist and the patient has demonstrated progressive disease (Grade 2C). (See 'Histology-driven treatment' above.)
●For tenosynovial giant cell tumor and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, we suggest a trial of imatinib if a clinical trial option does not exist and the patient has demonstrated progressive disease (Grade 2C). (See 'Imatinib' above and "Antineoplastic therapy for miscellaneous benign diseases affecting soft tissue and bone", section on 'Tenosynovial giant cell tumor' and "Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans: Treatment", section on 'Treatment of locally advanced, recurrent, and metastatic disease'.)
●For other histologies, the best regimen has not been established. Higher response rates are achieved by doxorubicin and ifosfamide-containing combinations such as doxorubicin plus ifosfamide with mesna (AIM) but at the cost of more toxicity as compared with sequential single agents. A brief trial of two cycles of combination chemotherapy may permit the rapid distinction between patients with highly chemotherapy-sensitive disease and those for whom this approach will provide toxicity without benefit.
For young symptomatic patients with an excellent performance status, we suggest combination rather than sequential single agent therapy (Grade 2C). We prefer doxorubicin 20 to 25 mg/m2 by bolus injection daily for three days plus ifosfamide 2000 to 3000 mg/m2 daily by bolus injection for three days with mesna and growth factor support (table 3). For older patients with adequate performance status and minimal comorbidity, smaller daily doses (20 mg/m2 of doxorubicin and 2000 mg/m2 of ifosfamide) are reasonable. Other variations of this regimen are available (table 2 and table 4). (See "Treatment protocols for soft tissue and bone sarcoma".)
Whether initial therapy with a gemcitabine-based regimen is preferable to an anthracycline/ifosfamide combination for patients with any histologic type of STS is uncertain. At some institutions, an anthracycline or an anthracycline plus ifosfamide remains the recommended first-line treatment for most patients. Others disagree, choosing gemcitabine-based therapy (eg, gemcitabine plus docetaxel (table 5)) for first-line therapy of leiomyosarcoma and undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma/malignant fibrous histiocytoma (UPS/MFH). In our experience, UPS/MFH is the one histologic subtype that responds better to gemcitabine/docetaxel, and we would choose this combination for first-line therapy in this group. For other histologies (eg, synovial sarcoma), the response rate to gemcitabine-based therapy is close to zero, and we suggest not pursuing this approach. (See 'Gemcitabine-based combinations' above and "Treatment protocols for soft tissue and bone sarcoma".)
Despite lower response rates, we suggest sequential single agent therapy (eg, doxorubicin followed by ifosfamide or other agents in succession) rather than combination therapy for patients with asymptomatic, low-volume or slow-growing disease, or a poor performance status (Grade 2C). (See 'Doxorubicin' above.)
●High-dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue is not a standard approach to treatment of advanced STS of the usual adult types, and we recommend that this approach not be pursued outside of the context of a clinical trial (Grade 1A). (See 'Dose intensification' above.)
Treatment at progression
●For patients with leiomyosarcomas and UPS/MFH who initially received a gemcitabine-based combination, an anthracycline alone or an anthracycline combination is a reasonable alternative. (See 'Gem/docetaxel versus doxorubicin alone' above.)
●For patients who initially were treated with an anthracycline-based regimen, a gemcitabine-based regimen is reasonable.
●For patients with advanced or metastatic STS (excluding GIST or liposarcoma) who progress after an anthracycline-containing regimen and, typically, after other chemotherapy, such as ifosfamide, gemcitabine, or gemcitabine combinations, we recommend pazopanib (Grade 1A). (See 'Pazopanib' above.)
●Where commercially available (in virtually all countries except Brazil and Australia), we recommend trabectedin for the treatment for leiomyosarcomas and liposarcomas, especially myxoid round cell liposarcoma (MRLS), that have failed standard anthracycline or ifosfamide-based therapy (Grade 1A). (See 'Trabectedin' above.)
ACKNOWLEDGMENT — The editorial staff at UpToDate would like to acknowledge George Demetri, MD, who contributed to an earlier version of this topic review.
- Billingsley KG, Burt ME, Jara E, et al. Pulmonary metastases from soft tissue sarcoma: analysis of patterns of diseases and postmetastasis survival. Ann Surg 1999; 229:602.
- Potter DA, Glenn J, Kinsella T, et al. Patterns of recurrence in patients with high-grade soft-tissue sarcomas. J Clin Oncol 1985; 3:353.
- Pearlstone DB, Pisters PW, Bold RJ, et al. Patterns of recurrence in extremity liposarcoma: implications for staging and follow-up. Cancer 1999; 85:85.
- Spillane AJ, Fisher C, Thomas JM. Myxoid liposarcoma--the frequency and the natural history of nonpulmonary soft tissue metastases. Ann Surg Oncol 1999; 6:389.
- Mazeron JJ, Suit HD. Lymph nodes as sites of metastases from sarcomas of soft tissue. Cancer 1987; 60:1800.
- Van Glabbeke M, van Oosterom AT, Oosterhuis JW, et al. Prognostic factors for the outcome of chemotherapy in advanced soft tissue sarcoma: an analysis of 2,185 patients treated with anthracycline-containing first-line regimens--a European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group Study. J Clin Oncol 1999; 17:150.
- Vogt-Moykopf I, Bülzebruck H, Merkle NM, Probst G. Results of surgical treatment of pulmonary metastases. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 1988; 2:224.
- Choong PF, Pritchard DJ, Rock MG, et al. Survival after pulmonary metastasectomy in soft tissue sarcoma. Prognostic factors in 214 patients. Acta Orthop Scand 1995; 66:561.
- Karavasilis V, Seddon BM, Ashley S, et al. Significant clinical benefit of first-line palliative chemotherapy in advanced soft-tissue sarcoma: retrospective analysis and identification of prognostic factors in 488 patients. Cancer 2008; 112:1585.
- Patel SR, Vadhan-Raj S, Papadopolous N, et al. High-dose ifosfamide in bone and soft tissue sarcomas: results of phase II and pilot studies--dose-response and schedule dependence. J Clin Oncol 1997; 15:2378.
- Rosen G, Forscher C, Lowenbraun S, et al. Synovial sarcoma. Uniform response of metastases to high dose ifosfamide. Cancer 1994; 73:2506.
- Spillane AJ, A'Hern R, Judson IR, et al. Synovial sarcoma: a clinicopathologic, staging, and prognostic assessment. J Clin Oncol 2000; 18:3794.
- Jones RL, Fisher C, Al-Muderis O, Judson IR. Differential sensitivity of liposarcoma subtypes to chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer 2005; 41:2853.
- Vlenterie M, Litière S, Rizzo E, et al. Outcome of chemotherapy in advanced synovial sarcoma patients: Review of 15 clinical trials from the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group; setting a new landmark for studies in this entity. Eur J Cancer 2016; 58:62.
- Edmonson JH, Marks RS, Buckner JC, Mahoney MR. Contrast of response to dacarbazine, mitomycin, doxorubicin, and cisplatin (DMAP) plus GM-CSF between patients with advanced malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumors and patients with other advanced leiomyosarcomas. Cancer Invest 2002; 20:605.
- Kroep JR, Ouali M, Gelderblom H, et al. First-line chemotherapy for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) versus other histological soft tissue sarcoma subtypes and as a prognostic factor for MPNST: an EORTC soft tissue and bone sarcoma group study. Ann Oncol 2011; 22:207.
- Widemann BC, Reinke D, Helman L, et al. SARC006: Phase II trial of chemotherapy in sporadic and neurofibromatosis-associated high-grade malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) (abstract 10522). J Clin Oncol 31, 2013 (suppl; abstr 10522). http://meetinglibrary.asco.org/content/113244-132 (Accessed on March 04, 2014).
- Seddon BM, WQhelan J, Strauss SJ, et al. GeDDiS: A prospective randomised controlled phase III trial of gemcitabine and docetaxel compared with doxorubicin as first-line treatment in previously untreated advanced unresectable or metastatic soft tissue arcomas (EudraCT 2009-014907-29). J Clin Oncol 33, 2015 (suppl; abstr 10500). Abstracxt available online at http://meetinglibrary.asco.org/content/144877-156 (Accessed on July 07, 2015).
- Benjamin RS, Wiernik PH, Bachur NR. Adriamycin: a new effective agent in the therapy of disseminated sarcomas. Med Pediatr Oncol 1975; 1:63.
- Borden EC, Amato DA, Rosenbaum C, et al. Randomized comparison of three adriamycin regimens for metastatic soft tissue sarcomas. J Clin Oncol 1987; 5:840.
- Judson I, Radford JA, Harris M, et al. Randomised phase II trial of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (DOXIL/CAELYX) versus doxorubicin in the treatment of advanced or metastatic soft tissue sarcoma: a study by the EORTC Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group. Eur J Cancer 2001; 37:870.
- Santoro A, Tursz T, Mouridsen H, et al. Doxorubicin versus CYVADIC versus doxorubicin plus ifosfamide in first-line treatment of advanced soft tissue sarcomas: a randomized study of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group. J Clin Oncol 1995; 13:1537.
- Edmonson JH, Ryan LM, Blum RH, et al. Randomized comparison of doxorubicin alone versus ifosfamide plus doxorubicin or mitomycin, doxorubicin, and cisplatin against advanced soft tissue sarcomas. J Clin Oncol 1993; 11:1269.
- Borden EC, Amato DA, Edmonson JH, et al. Randomized comparison of doxorubicin and vindesine to doxorubicin for patients with metastatic soft-tissue sarcomas. Cancer 1990; 66:862.
- Mouridsen HT, Bastholt L, Somers R, et al. Adriamycin versus epirubicin in advanced soft tissue sarcomas. A randomized phase II/phase III study of the EORTC Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 1987; 23:1477.
- Schoenfeld DA, Rosenbaum C, Horton J, et al. A comparison of adriamycin versus vincristine and adriamycin, and cyclophosphamide versus vincristine, actinomycin-D, and cyclophosphamide for advanced sarcoma. Cancer 1982; 50:2757.
- Demetri GD, Elias AD. Results of single-agent and combination chemotherapy for advanced soft tissue sarcomas. Implications for decision making in the clinic. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 1995; 9:765.
- Casper ES, Schwartz GK, Sugarman A, et al. Phase I trial of dose-intense liposome-encapsulated doxorubicin in patients with advanced sarcoma. J Clin Oncol 1997; 15:2111.
- Skubitz KM. Phase II trial of pegylated-liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil) in sarcoma. Cancer Invest 2003; 21:167.
- Skubitz KM, Haddad PA. Paclitaxel and pegylated-liposomal doxorubicin are both active in angiosarcoma. Cancer 2005; 104:361.
- Grenader T, Goldberg A, Hadas-Halperin I, Gabizon A. Long-term response to pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in patients with metastatic soft tissue sarcomas. Anticancer Drugs 2009; 20:15.
- Eiling S, Lischner S, Busch JO, et al. Complete remission of a radio-resistant cutaneous angiosarcoma of the scalp by systemic treatment with liposomal doxorubicin. Br J Dermatol 2002; 147:150.
- Wollina U, Hansel G, Schönlebe J, et al. Cutaneous angiosarcoma is a rare aggressive malignant vascular tumour of the skin. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2011; 25:964.
- Nielsen OS, Dombernowsky P, Mouridsen H, et al. High-dose epirubicin is not an alternative to standard-dose doxorubicin in the treatment of advanced soft tissue sarcomas. A study of the EORTC soft tissue and bone sarcoma group. Br J Cancer 1998; 78:1634.
- Keohan ML, Taub RN. Chemotherapy for advanced sarcoma: therapeutic decisions and modalities. Semin Oncol 1997; 24:572.
- Bramwell VH, Mouridsen HT, Santoro A, et al. Cyclophosphamide versus ifosfamide: a randomized phase II trial in adult soft-tissue sarcomas. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer [EORTC], Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1993; 31 Suppl 2:S180.
- Antman KH, Ryan L, Elias A, et al. Response to ifosfamide and mesna: 124 previously treated patients with metastatic or unresectable sarcoma. J Clin Oncol 1989; 7:126.
- Nielsen OS, Judson I, van Hoesel Q, et al. Effect of high-dose ifosfamide in advanced soft tissue sarcomas. A multicentre phase II study of the EORTC Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group. Eur J Cancer 2000; 36:61.
- Cerny T, Leyvraz S, von Briel T, et al. Saturable metabolism of continuous high-dose ifosfamide with mesna and GM-CSF: a pharmacokinetic study in advanced sarcoma patients. Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAKK). Ann Oncol 1999; 10:1087.
- Buesa JM, López-Pousa A, Martín J, et al. Phase II trial of first-line high-dose ifosfamide in advanced soft tissue sarcomas of the adult: a study of the Spanish Group for Research on Sarcomas (GEIS). Ann Oncol 1998; 9:871.
- Sutton G, Blessing JA, Park R, et al. Ifosfamide treatment of recurrent or metastatic endometrial stromal sarcomas previously unexposed to chemotherapy: a study of the Gynecologic Oncology Group. Obstet Gynecol 1996; 87:747.
- van Oosterom AT, Mouridsen HT, Nielsen OS, et al. Results of randomised studies of the EORTC Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group (STBSG) with two different ifosfamide regimens in first- and second-line chemotherapy in advanced soft tissue sarcoma patients. Eur J Cancer 2002; 38:2397.
- Palumbo R, Palmeri S, Antimi M, et al. Phase II study of continuous-infusion high-dose ifosfamide in advanced and/or metastatic pretreated soft tissue sarcomas. Ann Oncol 1997; 8:1159.
- Le Cesne A, Antoine E, Spielmann M, et al. High-dose ifosfamide: circumvention of resistance to standard-dose ifosfamide in advanced soft tissue sarcomas. J Clin Oncol 1995; 13:1600.
- Rahal AS, et al. High-dose ifosfamide (HDI) in metastatic synovial sarcoma: The Institut Gustave Roussy experience. J Clin Oncol 30, 2012 (suppl; abstr 10044). Abstract available online at http://www.asco.org/ASCOv2/Meetings/Abstracts?&vmview=abst_detail_view&confID=114&abstractID=95524 (Accessed on July 10, 2012).
- Lorigan P, Verweij J, Papai Z, et al. Phase III trial of two investigational schedules of ifosfamide compared with standard-dose doxorubicin in advanced or metastatic soft tissue sarcoma: a European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group Study. J Clin Oncol 2007; 25:3144.
- Fata F, O'Reilly E, Ilson D, et al. Paclitaxel in the treatment of patients with angiosarcoma of the scalp or face. Cancer 1999; 86:2034.
- Nagano T, Yamada Y, Ikeda T, et al. Docetaxel: a therapeutic option in the treatment of cutaneous angiosarcoma: report of 9 patients. Cancer 2007; 110:648.
- Penel N, Bui BN, Bay JO, et al. Phase II trial of weekly paclitaxel for unresectable angiosarcoma: the ANGIOTAX Study. J Clin Oncol 2008; 26:5269.
- Schlemmer M, Reichardt P, Verweij J, et al. Paclitaxel in patients with advanced angiosarcomas of soft tissue: a retrospective study of the EORTC soft tissue and bone sarcoma group. Eur J Cancer 2008; 44:2433.
- Fury MG, Antonescu CR, Van Zee KJ, et al. A 14-year retrospective review of angiosarcoma: clinical characteristics, prognostic factors, and treatment outcomes with surgery and chemotherapy. Cancer J 2005; 11:241.
- Young RJ, Brown NJ, Reed MW, et al. Angiosarcoma. Lancet Oncol 2010; 11:983.
- Young RJ, Natukunda A, Litière S, et al. First-line anthracycline-based chemotherapy for angiosarcoma and other soft tissue sarcoma subtypes: pooled analysis of eleven European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group trials. Eur J Cancer 2014; 50:3178.
- Italiano A, Cioffi A, Penel N, et al. Comparison of doxorubicin and weekly paclitaxel efficacy in metastatic angiosarcomas. Cancer 2012; 118:3330.
- Casanova M, Ferrari A, Spreafico F, et al. Vinorelbine in previously treated advanced childhood sarcomas: evidence of activity in rhabdomyosarcoma. Cancer 2002; 94:3263.
- Anderson SE, Keohan ML, D'Adamo DR, Maki RG. A retrospective analysis of vinorelbine chemotherapy for patients with previously treated soft-tissue sarcomas. Sarcoma 2006; 2006:15947.
- Omura GA, Major FJ, Blessing JA, et al. A randomized study of adriamycin with and without dimethyl triazenoimidazole carboxamide in advanced uterine sarcomas. Cancer 1983; 52:626.
- Gottlieb JA, Benjamin RS, Baker LH, et al. Role of DTIC (NSC-45388) in the chemotherapy of sarcomas. Cancer Treat Rep 1976; 60:199.
- Buesa JM, Mouridsen HT, van Oosterom AT, et al. High-dose DTIC in advanced soft-tissue sarcomas in the adult. A phase II study of the E.O.R.T.C. Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group. Ann Oncol 1991; 2:307.
- Garcia del Muro X, Lopez-Pousa A, Martin J, et al. A phase II trial of temozolomide as a 6-week, continuous, oral schedule in patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma: a study by the Spanish Group for Research on Sarcomas. Cancer 2005; 104:1706.
- Zucali PA, Bertuzzi A, Parra HJ, et al. The "old drug" dacarbazine as a second/third line chemotherapy in advanced soft tissue sarcomas. Invest New Drugs 2008; 26:175.
- Thigpen JT, Blessing JA, Beecham J, et al. Phase II trial of cisplatin as first-line chemotherapy in patients with advanced or recurrent uterine sarcomas: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol 1991; 9:1962.
- Goldstein D, Cheuvart B, Trump DL, et al. Phase II trial of carboplatin in soft-tissue sarcoma. Am J Clin Oncol 1990; 13:420.
- Merimsky O, Meller I, Flusser G, et al. Gemcitabine in soft tissue or bone sarcoma resistant to standard chemotherapy: a phase II study. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2000; 45:177.
- Patel SR, Gandhi V, Jenkins J, et al. Phase II clinical investigation of gemcitabine in advanced soft tissue sarcomas and window evaluation of dose rate on gemcitabine triphosphate accumulation. J Clin Oncol 2001; 19:3483.
- Hartmann JT, Oechsle K, Huober J, et al. An open label, non-comparative phase II study of gemcitabine as salvage treatment for patients with pretreated adult type soft tissue sarcoma. Invest New Drugs 2006; 24:249.
- Ferraresi V, Ciccarese M, Cercato MC, et al. Gemcitabine at fixed dose-rate in patients with advanced soft-tissue sarcomas: a mono-institutional phase II study. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2008; 63:149.
- Okuno S, Ryan LM, Edmonson JH, et al. Phase II trial of gemcitabine in patients with advanced sarcomas (E1797): a trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Cancer 2003; 97:1969.
- Von Burton G, Rankin C, Zalupski MM, et al. Phase II trial of gemcitabine as first line chemotherapy in patients with metastatic or unresectable soft tissue sarcoma. Am J Clin Oncol 2006; 29:59.
- Duffaud F, et al. A FNCLCC French Sarcoma Group (GETO) multicenter randomized phase II study of gemcitabine versus gemcitabine and docetaxel in patinets with metastatic or relapsed leiomyosarcoma (LMS) (abstract). J Clin Oncol 2008; 26:555s.
- Stacchiotti S, Palassini E, Sanfilippo R, et al. Gemcitabine in advanced angiosarcoma: a retrospective case series analysis from the Italian Rare Cancer Network. Ann Oncol 2012; 23:501.
- Bramwell VH, Eisenhauer EA, Blackstein M, et al. Phase II study of topotecan (NSC 609 699) in patients with recurrent or metastatic soft tissue sarcoma. Ann Oncol 1995; 6:847.
- Blanchette P, Hogg D, Ferguson P, et al. Topotecan and cyclophosphamide in adults with relapsed sarcoma. Sarcoma 2012; 2012:749067.
- Farhat R, Raad R, Khoury NJ, et al. Cyclophosphamide and topotecan as first-line salvage therapy in patients with relapsed ewing sarcoma at a single institution. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2013; 35:356.
- Hunold A, Weddeling N, Paulussen M, et al. Topotecan and cyclophosphamide in patients with refractory or relapsed Ewing tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2006; 47:795.
- Le Cesne A, Judson I, Crowther D, et al. Randomized phase III study comparing conventional-dose doxorubicin plus ifosfamide versus high-dose doxorubicin plus ifosfamide plus recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in advanced soft tissue sarcomas: A trial of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group. J Clin Oncol 2000; 18:2676.
- Worden FP, Taylor JM, Biermann JS, et al. Randomized phase II evaluation of 6 g/m2 of ifosfamide plus doxorubicin and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) compared with 12 g/m2 of ifosfamide plus doxorubicin and G-CSF in the treatment of poor-prognosis soft tissue sarcoma. J Clin Oncol 2005; 23:105.
- Antman K, Crowley J, Balcerzak SP, et al. An intergroup phase III randomized study of doxorubicin and dacarbazine with or without ifosfamide and mesna in advanced soft tissue and bone sarcomas. J Clin Oncol 1993; 11:1276.
- Antman K, Crowley J, Balcerzak SP, et al. A Southwest Oncology Group and Cancer and Leukemia Group B phase II study of doxorubicin, dacarbazine, ifosfamide, and mesna in adults with advanced osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma. Cancer 1998; 82:1288.
- Elias A, Ryan L, Sulkes A, et al. Response to mesna, doxorubicin, ifosfamide, and dacarbazine in 108 patients with metastatic or unresectable sarcoma and no prior chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol 1989; 7:1208.
- Hensley ML, Maki R, Venkatraman E, et al. Gemcitabine and docetaxel in patients with unresectable leiomyosarcoma: results of a phase II trial. J Clin Oncol 2002; 20:2824.
- Leu KM, Ostruszka LJ, Shewach D, et al. Laboratory and clinical evidence of synergistic cytotoxicity of sequential treatment with gemcitabine followed by docetaxel in the treatment of sarcoma. J Clin Oncol 2004; 22:1706.
- Dileo P, Morgan JA, Zahrieh D, et al. Gemcitabine and vinorelbine combination chemotherapy for patients with advanced soft tissue sarcomas: results of a phase II trial. Cancer 2007; 109:1863.
- Saeter G, Talle K, Solheim OP. Treatment of advanced, high-grade soft-tissue sarcoma with ifosfamide and continuous-infusion etoposide. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1995; 36:172.
- Palumbo R, Palmeri S, Gatti C, et al. Combination chemotherapy using vincristine, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide (VAC) alternating with ifosfamide and etoposide (IE) for advanced soft tissue sarcomas: a phase II study. Oncol Rep 1998; 5:69.
- Zalupski M, Metch B, Balcerzak S, et al. Phase III comparison of doxorubicin and dacarbazine given by bolus versus infusion in patients with soft-tissue sarcomas: a Southwest Oncology Group study. J Natl Cancer Inst 1991; 83:926.
- Bramwell V, Rouesse J, Steward W, et al. Adjuvant CYVADIC chemotherapy for adult soft tissue sarcoma--reduced local recurrence but no improvement in survival: a study of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group. J Clin Oncol 1994; 12:1137.
- Subramanian S, Wiltshaw E. Chemotherapy of sarcoma. A comparison of three regimens. Lancet 1978; 1:683.
- Edmonson JH, Long HJ, Kvols LK, et al. Can molgramostim enhance the antitumor effects of cytotoxic drugs in patients with advanced sarcomas? Ann Oncol 1997; 8:637.
- Jelić S, Kovcin V, Milanović N, et al. Randomised study of high-dose epirubicin versus high-dose epirubicin-cisplatin chemotherapy for advanced soft tissue sarcoma. Eur J Cancer 1997; 33:220.
- Maurel J, López-Pousa A, de Las Peñas R, et al. Efficacy of sequential high-dose doxorubicin and ifosfamide compared with standard-dose doxorubicin in patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma: an open-label randomized phase II study of the Spanish group for research on sarcomas. J Clin Oncol 2009; 27:1893.
- Judson I, Verweij J, Gelderblom H, et al. Doxorubicin alone versus intensified doxorubicin plus ifosfamide for first-line treatment of advanced or metastatic soft-tissue sarcoma: a randomised controlled phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol 2014; 15:415.
- Bramwell VH, Anderson D, Charette ML, Sarcoma Disease Site Group. Doxorubicin-based chemotherapy for the palliative treatment of adult patients with locally advanced or metastatic soft tissue sarcoma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003; :CD003293.
- Antman KS, Griffin JD, Elias A, et al. Effect of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor on chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression. N Engl J Med 1988; 319:593.
- van der Graaf WTA, Judson I, Verweij J, et al. Results of a randomised phase III trial (EORTC 62012) of single agent doxorubicin versus doxorubicin plus ifosfamide as first-line chemotherapy for patients with advanced or metastatic soft tissue sarcoma: a survival study of the EORTC Soft Tissue Sarcoma Group (late-breaking abstract 7). Data presented at the 2012 European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) Congress, Vienna Austria, September 28-October 2, 2012. http://abstracts.webges.com/myitinerary/author.html (Accessed on January 18, 2013).
- Muss HB, Bundy B, DiSaia PJ, et al. Treatment of recurrent or advanced uterine sarcoma. A randomized trial of doxorubicin versus doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (a phase III trial of the Gynecologic Oncology Group). Cancer 1985; 55:1648.
- Blay JY, van Glabbeke M, Verweij J, et al. Advanced soft-tissue sarcoma: a disease that is potentially curable for a subset of patients treated with chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer 2003; 39:64.
- Bay JO, Ray-Coquard I, Fayette J, et al. Docetaxel and gemcitabine combination in 133 advanced soft-tissue sarcomas: a retrospective analysis. Int J Cancer 2006; 119:706.
- Maki RG, Wathen JK, Patel SR, et al. Randomized phase II study of gemcitabine and docetaxel compared with gemcitabine alone in patients with metastatic soft tissue sarcomas: results of sarcoma alliance for research through collaboration study 002 [corrected]. J Clin Oncol 2007; 25:2755.
- Penel N, Glabbeke MV, Mathoulin-Pelissier S, et al. Performance status is the most powerful risk factor for early death among patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma: the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group (STBSG) and French Sarcoma Group (FSG) study. Br J Cancer 2011; 104:1544.
- Fletcher CDM, Chibon F, Mertens F. Undifferentiated/unclassified sarcomas. In: WHO classifiction of tumours of soft tissue and bone, 4th, Fletcher CDM, Bridge JA, Hogendoorn PCW, Mertens F. (Eds), IARC, Lyon 2013. p.236.
- Pautier P, Floquet A, Penel N, et al. Randomized multicenter and stratified phase II study of gemcitabine alone versus gemcitabine and docetaxel in patients with metastatic or relapsed leiomyosarcomas: a Federation Nationale des Centres de Lutte Contre le Cancer (FNCLCC) French Sarcoma Group Study (TAXOGEM study). Oncologist 2012; 17:1213.
- Baker LH, Crowley JJ, Maki RG. Randomization and statistical power: paramount in trial reproducibility (even for rare cancers). Oncologist 2012; 17:1129.
- García-Del-Muro X, López-Pousa A, Maurel J, et al. Randomized phase II study comparing gemcitabine plus dacarbazine versus dacarbazine alone in patients with previously treated soft tissue sarcoma: a Spanish Group for Research on Sarcomas study. J Clin Oncol 2011; 29:2528.
- Steward WP, Verweij J, Somers R, et al. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor allows safe escalation of dose-intensity of chemotherapy in metastatic adult soft tissue sarcomas: a study of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group. J Clin Oncol 1993; 11:15.
- Palumbo R, Neumaier C, Cosso M, et al. Dose-intensive first-line chemotherapy with epirubicin and continuous infusion ifosfamide in adult patients with advanced soft tissue sarcomas: a phase II study. Eur J Cancer 1999; 35:66.
- Reichardt P, Tilgner J, Hohenberger P, Dörken B. Dose-intensive chemotherapy with ifosfamide, epirubicin, and filgrastim for adult patients with metastatic or locally advanced soft tissue sarcoma: a phase II study. J Clin Oncol 1998; 16:1438.
- Patel SR, Vadhan-Raj S, Burgess MA, et al. Results of two consecutive trials of dose-intensive chemotherapy with doxorubicin and ifosfamide in patients with sarcomas. Am J Clin Oncol 1998; 21:317.
- Serrone L, Zeuli M, Gamucci T, et al. A phase II study of dose-intense ifosfamide plus epirubicin with hematopoietic growth factors for the treatment of patients with advanced soft tissue sarcomas; a novel sequential schedule. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2001; 47:206.
- Fayette J, Penel N, Chevreau C, et al. Phase III trial of standard versus dose-intensified doxorubicin, ifosfamide and dacarbazine (MAID) in the first-line treatment of metastatic and locally advanced soft tissue sarcoma. Invest New Drugs 2009; 27:482.
- Schlemmer M, Wendtner CM, Falk M, et al. Efficacy of consolidation high-dose chemotherapy with ifosfamide, carboplatin and etoposide (HD-ICE) followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell rescue in chemosensitive patients with metastatic soft tissue sarcomas. Oncology 2006; 71:32.
- Bokemeyer C, Franzke A, Hartmann JT, et al. A phase I/II study of sequential, dose-escalated, high dose ifosfamide plus doxorubicin with peripheral blood stem cell support for the treatment of patients with advanced soft tissue sarcomas. Cancer 1997; 80:1221.
- Blay JY, Bouhour D, Ray-Coquard I, et al. High-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for advanced soft tissue sarcoma in adults. J Clin Oncol 2000; 18:3643.
- Boulad F, Kernan NA, LaQuaglia MP, et al. High-dose induction chemoradiotherapy followed by autologous bone marrow transplantation as consolidation therapy in rhabdomyosarcoma, extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma, and undifferentiated sarcoma. J Clin Oncol 1998; 16:1697.
- Kasper B, Scharrenbroich I, Schmitt T, et al. Consolidation with high-dose chemotherapy and stem cell support for responding patients with metastatic soft tissue sarcomas: prospective, single-institutional phase II study. Bone Marrow Transplant 2010; 45:1234.
- Herrero AB, Martín-Castellanos C, Marco E, et al. Cross-talk between nucleotide excision and homologous recombination DNA repair pathways in the mechanism of action of antitumor trabectedin. Cancer Res 2006; 66:8155.
- Delaloge S, Yovine A, Taamma A, et al. Ecteinascidin-743: a marine-derived compound in advanced, pretreated sarcoma patients--preliminary evidence of activity. J Clin Oncol 2001; 19:1248.
- Yovine A, Riofrio M, Blay JY, et al. Phase II study of ecteinascidin-743 in advanced pretreated soft tissue sarcoma patients. J Clin Oncol 2004; 22:890.
- Le Cesne A, Blay JY, Judson I, et al. Phase II study of ET-743 in advanced soft tissue sarcomas: a European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) soft tissue and bone sarcoma group trial. J Clin Oncol 2005; 23:576.
- Garcia-Carbonero R, Supko JG, Manola J, et al. Phase II and pharmacokinetic study of ecteinascidin 743 in patients with progressive sarcomas of soft tissues refractory to chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol 2004; 22:1480.
- Blay JY, Italiano A, Ray-Coquard I, et al. Long-term outcome and effect of maintenance therapy in patients with advanced sarcoma treated with trabectedin: an analysis of 181 patients of the French ATU compassionate use program. BMC Cancer 2013; 13:64.
- Demetri GD, Chawla SP, von Mehren M, et al. Efficacy and safety of trabectedin in patients with advanced or metastatic liposarcoma or leiomyosarcoma after failure of prior anthracyclines and ifosfamide: results of a randomized phase II study of two different schedules. J Clin Oncol 2009; 27:4188.
- Samuels BL, Chawla S, Patel S, et al. Clinical outcomes and safety with trabectedin therapy in patients with advanced soft tissue sarcomas following failure of prior chemotherapy: results of a worldwide expanded access program study. Ann Oncol 2013; 24:1703.
- Currow DC, Quinn S, Agar M, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of octreotide in malignant bowel obstruction. J Pain Symptom Manage 2015; 49:814.
- Garcia-Carbonero R, Supko JG, Maki RG, et al. Ecteinascidin-743 (ET-743) for chemotherapy-naive patients with advanced soft tissue sarcomas: multicenter phase II and pharmacokinetic study. J Clin Oncol 2005; 23:5484.
- Demetri GD, von Mehren M, Jones RL, et al. Efficacy and Safety of Trabectedin or Dacarbazine for Metastatic Liposarcoma or Leiomyosarcoma After Failure of Conventional Chemotherapy: Results of a Phase III Randomized Multicenter Clinical Trial. J Clin Oncol 2016; 34:786.
- http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm468832.htm (Accessed on October 26, 2015).
- Theman TA, Hartzell TL, Sinha I, et al. Recognition of a new chemotherapeutic vesicant: trabectedin (ecteinascidin-743) extravasation with skin and soft tissue damage. J Clin Oncol 2009; 27:e198.
- Paz-Ares L, López-Pousa A, Poveda A, et al. Trabectedin in pre-treated patients with advanced or metastatic soft tissue sarcoma: a phase II study evaluating co-treatment with dexamethasone. Invest New Drugs 2012; 30:729.
- Jordan K, Jahn F, Jordan B, et al. Trabectedin: Supportive care strategies and safety profile. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2015; 94:279.
- Grosso F, Jones RL, Demetri GD, et al. Efficacy of trabectedin (ecteinascidin-743) in advanced pretreated myxoid liposarcomas: a retrospective study. Lancet Oncol 2007; 8:595.
- Grosso F, Sanfilippo R, Virdis E, et al. Trabectedin in myxoid liposarcomas (MLS): a long-term analysis of a single-institution series. Ann Oncol 2009; 20:1439.
- Kawai A, Araki N, Sugiura H, et al. Trabectedin monotherapy after standard chemotherapy versus best supportive care in patients with advanced, translocation-related sarcoma: a randomised, open-label, phase 2 study. Lancet Oncol 2015; 16:406.
- Pautier P, Floquet A, Chevreau C, et al. Trabectedin in combination with doxorubicin for first-line treatment of advanced uterine or soft-tissue leiomyosarcoma (LMS-02): a non-randomised, multicentre, phase 2 trial. Lancet Oncol 2015; 16:457.
- Martin-Broto J, Pousa AL, de Las Peñas R, et al. Randomized Phase II Study of Trabectedin and Doxorubicin Compared With Doxorubicin Alone as First-Line Treatment in Patients With Advanced Soft Tissue Sarcomas: A Spanish Group for Research on Sarcoma Study. J Clin Oncol 2016; 34:2294.
- Groso F, Forni C, Frapolli R, et al. Sensitivity of myxoid round-cell liposarcoma to trabectidin may be related to a direct effect on the fusion transcript (abstract). J Clin Oncol 2007; 25:545s.
- Sleijfer S, Ray-Coquard I, Papai Z, et al. Pazopanib, a multikinase angiogenesis inhibitor, in patients with relapsed or refractory advanced soft tissue sarcoma: a phase II study from the European organisation for research and treatment of cancer-soft tissue and bone sarcoma group (EORTC study 62043). J Clin Oncol 2009; 27:3126.
- van der Graaf WT, Blay JY, Chawla SP, et al. Pazopanib for metastatic soft-tissue sarcoma (PALETTE): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial. Lancet 2012; 379:1879.
- Van Der Graaf W, Blay JY, Chawla SP, et al. PALETTE: Final overall survival (OS) data and predictive factors for OS of EORTC 62072/GSK VEG110727, a randomized, double-blind phase III trial of pazopanib versus placebo in advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS) patients. J Clin Oncol 30, 2012 (Suppl; abstr 10009). Abstract available online at http://www.asco.org/ASCOv2/Meetings/Abstracts?&vmview=abst_detail_view&confID=114&abstractID=97682 (Accessed on July 10, 2012).
- Coens C, van der Graaf WT, Blay JY, et al. Health-related quality-of-life results from PALETTE: A randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trial of pazopanib versus placebo in patients with soft tissue sarcoma whose disease has progressed during or after prior chemotherapy-a European Organization for research and treatment of cancer soft tissue and bone sarcoma group global network study (EORTC 62072). Cancer 2015; 121:2933.
- Di Gion P, Kanefendt F, Lindauer A, et al. Clinical pharmacokinetics of tyrosine kinase inhibitors: focus on pyrimidines, pyridines and pyrroles. Clin Pharmacokinet 2011; 50:551.
- http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/lookup.cfm?setid=f5b7b3a4-c3a4-4722-8ca5-8f6a5c622553 (Accessed on July 16, 2014).
- Schöffski P, Ray-Coquard IL, Cioffi A, et al. Activity of eribulin mesylate in patients with soft-tissue sarcoma: a phase 2 study in four independent histological subtypes. Lancet Oncol 2011; 12:1045.
- Schöffski P, Chawla S, Maki RG, et al. Eribulin versus dacarbazine in previously treated patients with advanced liposarcoma or leiomyosarcoma: a randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 3 trial. Lancet 2016; 387:1629.
- Eribulin prescribing information available at http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2016/201532s015lbl.pdf?et_cid=37339842&et_rid=907466112&linkid=http%3a%2f%2fwww.accessdata.fda.gov%2fdrugsatfda_docs%2flabel%2f2016%2f201532s015lbl.pdf (Accessed on January 29, 2016).
- http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm483714.htm (Accessed on January 29, 2016).
- Hornick JL, Fletcher CD. PEComa: what do we know so far? Histopathology 2006; 48:75.
- Folpe AL, Kwiatkowski DJ. Perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms: pathology and pathogenesis. Hum Pathol 2010; 41:1.
- Folpe AL, Mentzel T, Lehr HA, et al. Perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms of soft tissue and gynecologic origin: a clinicopathologic study of 26 cases and review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol 2005; 29:1558.
- Wagner AJ, Malinowska-Kolodziej I, Morgan JA, et al. Clinical activity of mTOR inhibition with sirolimus in malignant perivascular epithelioid cell tumors: targeting the pathogenic activation of mTORC1 in tumors. J Clin Oncol 2010; 28:835.
- Smolarek TA, Wessner LL, McCormack FX, et al. Evidence that lymphangiomyomatosis is caused by TSC2 mutations: chromosome 16p13 loss of heterozygosity in angiomyolipomas and lymph nodes from women with lymphangiomyomatosis. Am J Hum Genet 1998; 62:810.
- Carsillo T, Astrinidis A, Henske EP. Mutations in the tuberous sclerosis complex gene TSC2 are a cause of sporadic pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2000; 97:6085.
- Yu J, Astrinidis A, Henske EP. Chromosome 16 loss of heterozygosity in tuberous sclerosis and sporadic lymphangiomyomatosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001; 164:1537.
- Pan CC, Chung MY, Ng KF, et al. Constant allelic alteration on chromosome 16p (TSC2 gene) in perivascular epithelioid cell tumour (PEComa): genetic evidence for the relationship of PEComa with angiomyolipoma. J Pathol 2008; 214:387.
- Kenerson H, Folpe AL, Takayama TK, Yeung RS. Activation of the mTOR pathway in sporadic angiomyolipomas and other perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms. Hum Pathol 2007; 38:1361.
- Bissler JJ, McCormack FX, Young LR, et al. Sirolimus for angiomyolipoma in tuberous sclerosis complex or lymphangioleiomyomatosis. N Engl J Med 2008; 358:140.
- Davies DM, Johnson SR, Tattersfield AE, et al. Sirolimus therapy in tuberous sclerosis or sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis. N Engl J Med 2008; 358:200.
- Taillé C, Debray MP, Crestani B. Sirolimus treatment for pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Ann Intern Med 2007; 146:687.
- Dickson MA, Schwartz GK, Antonescu CR, et al. Extrarenal perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) respond to mTOR inhibition: clinical and molecular correlates. Int J Cancer 2013; 132:1711.
- http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm448523.htm?source=govdelivery&utm_medium=email&utm_source=govdelivery (Accessed on October 26, 2015).
- George S, Merriam P, Maki RG, et al. Multicenter phase II trial of sunitinib in the treatment of nongastrointestinal stromal tumor sarcomas. J Clin Oncol 2009; 27:3154.
- Mahmood ST, Agresta S, Vigil CE, et al. Phase II study of sunitinib malate, a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor in patients with relapsed or refractory soft tissue sarcomas. Focus on three prevalent histologies: leiomyosarcoma, liposarcoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma. Int J Cancer 2011; 129:1963.
- Stacchiotti S, Grosso F, Negri T, et al. Tumor response to sunitinib malate observed in clear-cell sarcoma. Ann Oncol 2010; 21:1130.
- Palassini E, Stachiotti S, Negri T, et al. Sunitinib malate (SM) in alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) (abstract #10014). J Clin Oncol 2010; 28:701s.
- Stacchiotti S, Negri T, Libertini M, et al. Sunitinib malate in solitary fibrous tumor (SFT). Ann Oncol 2012; 23:3171.
- Stacchiotti S, Pantaleo MA, Astolfi A, et al. Activity of sunitinib in extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. Eur J Cancer 2014; 50:1657.
- Stacchiotti S, Tamborini E, Marrari A, et al. Response to sunitinib malate in advanced alveolar soft part sarcoma. Clin Cancer Res 2009; 15:1096.
- Maki RG, D'Adamo DR, Keohan ML, et al. Phase II study of sorafenib in patients with metastatic or recurrent sarcomas. J Clin Oncol 2009; 27:3133.
- von Mehren M, Rankin C, Goldblum JR, et al. Phase 2 Southwest Oncology Group-directed intergroup trial (S0505) of sorafenib in advanced soft tissue sarcomas. Cancer 2012; 118:770.
- Chevreau C, Le Cesne A, Ray-Coquard I, et al. Sorafenib in patients with progressive epithelioid hemangioendothelioma: a phase 2 study by the French Sarcoma Group (GSF/GETO). Cancer 2013; 119:2639.
- Penel N, Mir O, Italiano A, et al. Regorafenib (RE) in liposarcomas (LIPO), leiomyosarcomas (LMS), synovial sarcomas (SYN), and other types of soft-tissue sarcomas (OTS): Results of an international, double-blind, randomized, placebo (PL) controlled phase II trial (abstract). J Clin Oncol 34, 2016 (suppl; abstr 11003). Abstract available online at http://meetinglibrary.asco.org/content/162032-176 (Accessed on June 17, 2016).
- Kummar S, Allen D, Monks A, et al. Cediranib for metastatic alveolar soft part sarcoma. J Clin Oncol 2013; 31:2296.
- D'Adamo DR, Anderson SE, Albritton K, et al. Phase II study of doxorubicin and bevacizumab for patients with metastatic soft-tissue sarcomas. J Clin Oncol 2005; 23:7135.
- Agulnik M, Yarber JL, Okuno SH, et al. An open-label, multicenter, phase II study of bevacizumab for the treatment of angiosarcoma and epithelioid hemangioendotheliomas. Ann Oncol 2013; 24:257.
- Ray-Coquard IL, Domont J, Tresch-Bruneel E, et al. Paclitaxel Given Once Per Week With or Without Bevacizumab in Patients With Advanced Angiosarcoma: A Randomized Phase II Trial. J Clin Oncol 2015; 33:2797.
- Dong J, Grunstein J, Tejada M, et al. VEGF-null cells require PDGFR alpha signaling-mediated stromal fibroblast recruitment for tumorigenesis. EMBO J 2004; 23:2800.
- Tap WD, Jones RL, Van Tine BA, et al. Olaratumab and doxorubicin versus doxorubicin alone for treatment of soft-tissue sarcoma: an open-label phase 1b and randomised phase 2 trial. Lancet 2016; 388:488.
- Dickson MA, Schwartz GK, Keohan ML, et al. Progression-Free Survival Among Patients With Well-Differentiated or Dedifferentiated Liposarcoma Treated With CDK4 Inhibitor Palbociclib: A Phase 2 Clinical Trial. JAMA Oncol 2016; 2:937.