- Raymond M Anchan, MD, PhD
Raymond M Anchan, MD, PhD
- Assistant Professor of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Biology
- Harvard Medical School
- Elizabeth S Ginsburg, MD
Elizabeth S Ginsburg, MD
- Associate Professor of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology
- Harvard Medical School
Medical science allows motherhood to be divided into three categories: the genetic, the gestational, and the social mother. These "mothers" may be represented by as many as three different individuals.
A “gestational” surrogate is a woman who agrees to carry a pregnancy for another woman (intended mother). The intended mother provides the egg and the intended father provides the sperm; rarely, egg donors or sperm donors are involved. In vitro fertilization (IVF) is used to create an embryo, which is transferred into the uterus of the gestational surrogate . The gestational surrogate has no genetic connection to the embryo.
By comparison, a “traditional” surrogate typically has a genetic connection to the embryo. The surrogate's own egg is fertilized by intrauterine insemination (IUI) of sperm from the intended father (or a sperm donor) . Therefore, the surrogate has a genetic, as well as a gestational, connection to the embryo.
The role of surrogates is usually limited to carrying the pregnancy and delivery of the infant; it does not extend to the raising of the child (social mother). However, gestational and traditional surrogates may be family members, and thus may maintain familial contact with the child .
This topic will review issues related to gestational surrogate pregnancy. Many of these issues also apply to traditional surrogacy.
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- Nonfunctioning uterus
- Maternal medical disease
- Biologic inability to conceive or bear a child
- MEDICAL MANAGEMENT AND PSYCHOLOGICAL EVALUATION
- FINDING A GESTATIONAL SURROGATE
- SELECTION OF A GESTATIONAL SURROGATE
- CONTRACTUAL ISSUES
- PROTECTION OF GESTATIONAL SURROGATES
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS