- Raymond M Anchan, MD, PhD
Raymond M Anchan, MD, PhD
- Assistant Professor of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Biology
- Harvard Medical School
- Elizabeth S Ginsburg, MD
Elizabeth S Ginsburg, MD
- Associate Professor of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology
- Harvard Medical School
Medical science allows motherhood to be divided into three categories: the genetic, the gestational, and the social mother. These "mothers" may be represented by as many as three different individuals.
A “gestational” surrogate is a woman who agrees to carry a pregnancy for another woman (intended mother). The intended mother provides the egg and the intended father provides the sperm; rarely, egg donors or sperm donors are involved. In vitro fertilization (IVF) is used to create an embryo, which is transferred into the uterus of the gestational surrogate . The gestational surrogate has no genetic connection to the embryo.
By comparison, a “traditional” surrogate typically has a genetic connection to the embryo. The surrogate's own egg is fertilized by intrauterine insemination (IUI) of sperm from the intended father (or a sperm donor) . Therefore, the surrogate has a genetic, as well as a gestational, connection to the embryo.
The role of surrogates is usually limited to carrying the pregnancy and delivery of the infant; it does not extend to the raising of the child (social mother). However, gestational and traditional surrogates may be family members, and thus may maintain familial contact with the child .
This topic will review issues related to gestational surrogate pregnancy. Many of these issues also apply to traditional surrogacy.To continue reading this article, you must log in with your personal, hospital, or group practice subscription. For more information on subscription options, click below on the option that best describes you:
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- Nonfunctioning uterus
- Maternal medical disease
- Biologic inability to conceive or bear a child
- MEDICAL MANAGEMENT AND PSYCHOLOGICAL EVALUATION
- FINDING A GESTATIONAL SURROGATE
- SELECTION OF A GESTATIONAL SURROGATE
- CONTRACTUAL ISSUES
- PROTECTION OF GESTATIONAL SURROGATES
- SOCIETY GUIDELINE LINKS
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS