Supranuclear disorders of gaze in children
- Andrew G Lee, MD
Andrew G Lee, MD
- Chair of the Blanton Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Houston Medical Hospital
- Professor of Ophthalmology, Neurology, and Neurological Surgery, Weill Cornell College of Medicine
- Clinical Professor of Ophthalmology, UTMB Galveston and the UT MD Anderson Cancer Center and the University o
- Paul W Brazis, MD
Paul W Brazis, MD
- Section Editor — Neuroophthalmology
- Professor of Neurology, Department of Ophthalmology
- Mayo Clinic College of Medicine
- Section Editors
- Evelyn A Paysse, MD
Evelyn A Paysse, MD
- Section Editor — Pediatric Ophthalmology
- Professor of Ophthalmology and Pediatrics
- Baylor College of Medicine
- Douglas R Nordli, Jr, MD
Douglas R Nordli, Jr, MD
- Section Editor — Pediatric Neurology
- Chief of Neurology
- Children’s Hospital Los Angeles
- Vice Chair of Neurology
- USC Keck School of Medicine
Abnormalities in eye movements can be caused by palsy of isolated ocular muscles, palsy of conjugate movements (gaze), or both. The supranuclear disorders of gaze in children are reviewed here. Palsy of isolated extraocular muscles is discussed separately. (See "Evaluation and management of strabismus in children" and "Third cranial nerve (oculomotor nerve) palsy in children" and "Fourth cranial nerve (trochlear nerve) palsy in children" and "Sixth cranial nerve (abducens nerve) palsy in children".)
The control of eye movement has three components:
●The supranuclear pathway (from the cortex and other control centers in the brain to the ocular motor nuclei in the brainstem)
●The ocular motor nuclei
●The infranuclear pathway from the ocular motor nuclei to the peripheral nerve, neuromuscular junction, and extraocular muscles (table 1)
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