Medline ® Abstracts for References 1-6

of 'Subdural hematoma in adults: Prognosis and management'

1
TI
Prognosis after acute subdural or epidural haemorrhage.
AU
Haselsberger K, Pucher R, Auer LM
SO
Acta Neurochir (Wien). 1988;90(3-4):111.
 
In a series of 171 patients suffering acute subdural haemorrhage (SDH) (111 patients) or epidural haemorrhage (EDH) (60 patients) after closed head injury accumulated during the years 1978-1985 at the University Hospital of Graz, the mortality rate and the grade of clinical recovery were evaluated. The overall mortality in acute SDH was 57%, in acute EDH 25%, the percentages of good recoveries--full recovery and minimal neurologic deficit--25 and 58%, respectively. Outcome was found to be predominantly influenced by the preoperative state of consciousness, associated brain lesions, and, in comatose patients, the duration of the time interval between onset of coma and surgical decompression. When this interval exceeded two hours, mortality from SDH rose from 47 to 80% (good outcomes 32 and 4%, respectively). In acute EDH an interval under two hours lead to 17% mortality and 67% of good recoveries compared to 65% mortality and 13% of good recoveries after an interval of more than two hours. Age and concomitant injuries of other body regions proved to be of secondary importance.
AD
Universitätsklinik für Neurochirurgie, Graz, Austria.
PMID
2
TI
Surgical management of acute subdural hematomas.
AU
Bullock MR, Chesnut R, Ghajar J, Gordon D, Hartl R, Newell DW, Servadei F, Walters BC, Wilberger JE, Surgical Management of Traumatic Brain Injury Author Group
SO
Neurosurgery. 2006;58(3 Suppl):S16.
 
INDICATIONS FOR SURGERY: An acute subdural hematoma (SDH) with a thickness greater than 10 mm or a midline shift greater than 5 mm on computed tomographic (CT) scan should be surgically evacuated, regardless of the patient's Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score. All patients with acute SDH in coma (GCS score less than 9) should undergo intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring. A comatose patient (GCS score less than 9) with an SDH less than 10-mm thick and a midline shift less than 5 mm should undergo surgical evacuation of the lesion if the GCS score decreased between the time of injury and hospital admission by 2 or more points on the GCS and/or the patient presents with asymmetric or fixed and dilated pupils and/or the ICP exceeds 20 mm Hg. TIMING: In patients with acute SDH and indications for surgery, surgical evacuation should be performed as soon as possible. METHODS: If surgical evacuation of an acute SDH in a comatose patient (GCS<9) is indicated, it should be performed using a craniotomy with or without bone flap removal and duraplasty.
AD
Department of Neurological Surgery, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, Richmond, Virginia, USA.
PMID
3
TI
Acute subdural hematoma: severity of injury, surgical intervention, and mortality.
AU
Hatashita S, Koga N, Hosaka Y, Takagi S
SO
Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 1993;33(1):13.
 
Sixty patients with acute subdural hematoma were treated at Tokyo Metropolitan Hiroo Hospital between 1981 and 1989. The overall mortality was 55% and the functional recovery rate 30%. Thirteen (93%) of 14 patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 3 died, while all eight patients with a GCS score of 7 or more achieved functional recovery. The mortality of patients with GCS scores of 4-6 ranged from 45 to 67%. Patients with GCS scores of 4-6 over 65 years old had a mortality of 82%, compared to 50% mortality for those aged 19-40 years. The mortality for patients with GCS scores of 4-6 operated on within 4 hours of injury was 62% in contrast to 33% for those operated on from 4 to 10 hours. Patients with GCS scores of 4-6 who underwent craniotomy with evacuation of the hematoma achieved significantly better recovery than those treated by burr holes. Four patients with GCS scores of 4-6 died in spite of decompressive craniectomy or craniotomy with duroplasty. The mortality is only influenced by age and type of surgical intervention among patients with GCS scores of 4-6. Shorter time from injury to surgical evacuation does not affect mortality within 10 hours of injury.
AD
Department of Neurosurgery, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Urayasu, Chiba.
PMID
4
TI
Computed tomographic criteria and survival rate for patients with acute subdural hematoma.
AU
Zumkeller M, Behrmann R, Heissler HE, Dietz H
SO
Neurosurgery. 1996;39(4):708.
 
OBJECTIVE: Computed tomographic data from 174 patients with acute subdural hematoma were analyzed statistically to identify parameters that could be evaluated independently of clinical and neurological status to estimate outcome.
METHODS: This retrospective study was made necessary by the fact that the patients admitted usually had been treated with intubation, sedation, and artificial ventilation, which precludes neurological examination.
RESULTS: In surgically treated patients, the hematoma thickness ranged from 5 to 35 mm and the midline shift was 0 to 33 mm. In 81 patients (46.6%), the hematoma thickness was greater than the midline shift; in 24 patients (13.8%), the hematoma thickness equaled the midline shift; and in 69 patients (39.6%), the midline shift exceeded the hematoma thickness. Of the patients, 52% died after surgery, for 29% we obtained good or satisfying results, and 19% were in poor condition after therapy. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis proved that the survival rate was only 50% for a hematoma thickness of approximately 18 mm and a midline shift of 20 mm. The survival function dropped markedly for midline shifts of more than 20 mm and converged to 0% for midline shifts of more than 25 mm. If the midline shift exceeded the hematoma thickness by 3 mm, the survival function was 50%; when the midline shift exceeded the hematoma thickness by 5 mm, the survival function was 25%. The Glasgow Outcome Scale scores were correlated significantly with these parameters. The parameters, which are the measured hematoma thickness, the midline shift, and the difference between the hematoma thickness and the midline shift, allow robust/adequate estimation of survival function and outcome for patients suffering from acute subdural hematoma.
CONCLUSION: Based on these data, indications for surgery could be assessed by means of video conferencing, i.e., without personal examination of the patients.
AD
Neurochirurgische Klinik, Medizinische Hochschule, Hannover, Germany.
PMID
5
TI
Acute subdural hematoma: outcome and outcome prediction.
AU
KoçRK, Akdemir H, Oktem IS, Meral M, MenküA
SO
Neurosurg Rev. 1997;20(4):239.
 
Patients with traumatic acute subdural hematoma were studied to determine the factors influencing outcome. Between January 1986 and August 1995, we collected 113 patients who underwent craniotomy for traumatic acute subdural hematoma. The relationship between initial clinical signs and the outcome 3 months after admission was studied retrospectively. Functional recovery was achieved in 38% of patients and the mortality was 60%. 91% of patients with a high Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score (9-15) and 23% of patients with a low GCS score (3-8) achieved functional recovery. All of 14 patients with a GCS score of 3 died. The mortality of patients with GCS scores of 4 and 5 was 95% to 75%, respectively. Patients over 61 years old had a mortality of 73% compared to 64% mortality for those aged 21-40 years. 97% of patients with bilateral unreactive pupil and 81% of patients with unilateral unreactive pupil died. The mortality rates of associated intracranial lesions were 91% in intracerebral hematoma, 87% in subarachnoid hemorrhage, 75% in contusion. Time from injury to surgical evacuation and type of surgical intervention did not affect mortality. Age and associated intracranial lesions were related to outcome. Severity of injury and pupillary response were the most important factors for predicting outcome.
AD
Department of Neurosurgery, Erciyes University, Medical School, Kayseri, Turkey.
PMID
6
TI
Importance of a reliable admission Glasgow Coma Scale score for determining the need for evacuation of posttraumatic subdural hematomas: a prospective study of 65 patients.
AU
Servadei F, Nasi MT, Cremonini AM, Giuliani G, Cenni P, Nanni A
SO
J Trauma. 1998;44(5):868.
 
BACKGROUND: Patients who have an acute subdural hematoma with a thickness of 10 mm or less and with a shift of the midline structures of 5 mm or less often can be treated nonoperatively. We wonder whether the knowledge of the clinical status both in the prehospital determination and on admission to the neurosurgical center can predict the need for evacuation of subdural hematomas as well as the computed tomographic (CT) parameters.
METHODS: From January 1, 1994, to May 31, 1996, 65 comatose patients harboring an acute subdural hematoma of 5 mm or more and not brain dead were admitted to our intensive care unit. Of the 65 patients, 15 patients were initially managed conservatively according to a protocol based on clinical, CT, and intracranial pressure parameters. During the study period, the use of long-lasting paralytic agents has been eliminated to allow detection of clinical deterioration in the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score from the prehospital determination to the hospital admission assessment.
RESULTS: Of the 15 patients initially managed conservatively, two were subsequently operated on because of evolving parenchymal hematomas. When comparing demographic, clinical, and CT parameters between the surgical group of patients and the patients initially conservatively treated, hematoma thickness (mean, 17.1 mm vs. 7.5 mm, p<0.0001) and shift of the midline structures (mean, 12.8 mm vs. 4.7 mm, p<0.008) were predictive of the need for surgery. A statistically significant change in the GCS score between prehospital determination and admission assessment was shown in the surgical group of patients (mean GCS score, 8.4 vs. 6.7, p<0.01), and it was not present (mean GCS score, 7.3 vs. 7.2) in the patients initially conservatively treated. Functional outcomes were present in 23 cases (35.4%); functional outcomes in the initially conservatively treated patients were reached by 10 patients (66.7%).
CONCLUSIONS: Nonoperative management for selected cases of acute subdural hematomas is at least as safe as surgical management. GCS scoring at the scene and in the emergency room combined with early and subsequent CT scanning is crucial when making the decision for nonoperative management. This strategy requires that administration of long-lasting sedatives and paralytic medications be avoided before the patient arrives at the neurosurgical center.
AD
Division of Neurosurgery, Ospedale Maurizio Bufalini, Cesena, Italy. servadei@mbox.queen.it
PMID