Medline ® Abstracts for References 9,10
Prevalence of intestinal parasite infections among individuals with mental retardation in New York State.
Schupf N, Ortiz M, Kapell D, Kiely M, Rudelli RD
Ment Retard. 1995;33(2):84.
The prevalence of intestinal parasite infection among program participants of the New York State Office of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities for the period 1986-1987 was estimated, and demographic factors associated with increased risk for infection were identified. The overall prevalence of infection was 7.3%. The two most prevalent infections were Enterobius vermicularis (4.5%) and strongyloides stercoralis (1.2%). Males and individuals with severe or profound mental retardation were twice as likely to be positive for the presence of intestinal parasites as females and individuals with mild/moderate retardation. The relatively low prevalence found in this study compared with previous surveys suggests that management of parasitic infection is improving in conjunction with developments in delivery of medical and habilitative services.
Laboratory of Epidemiology, New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island 10314, USA.
Age-prevalence and household clustering of Strongyloides stercoralis infection in Jamaica.
Lindo JF, Robinson RD, Terry SI, Vogel P, Gam AA, Neva FA, Bundy DA
Parasitology. 1995;110 ( Pt 1):97.
The epidemiology of Strongyloides stercoralis was studied in families of clinical (reference) cases and their neighbours at endemic foci in Jamaica. Thirteen foci were studied based on the place of residence of a reference case. For each household of a reference case, the 4 most proximal neighbourhood households (spatial controls) were included in the study. Out of 312 persons contacted 244 were followed up using questionnaires, stool examination and serology. Prevalence of infection based on stool examination was 3.5% and on ELISA 24.2%. Prevalence increased with age but was not related to gender. Reference cases were significantly older than the general study population. The prevalence of infection based on both serology and stool examination was significantly higher in reference than in neighbouring households (the reference cases, themselves, were not included in the analysis). Furthermore, prevalence of infection was highest among persons who shared a bedroom with a reference case and decreased significantly with increasing spatial separation. This is indicative of close contact transmission which has not been previously shown for a geohelminth, but which is common among microparasites.
Department of Zoology, University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston, Jamaica.