Straddle injuries in children: Evaluation and management
- Donna Reyes Mendez, MD
Donna Reyes Mendez, MD
- Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine
- University of Texas Health Science Center (UTHSC) Medical School Houston
- Section Editor
- Richard G Bachur, MD
Richard G Bachur, MD
- Section Editor — Pediatric Trauma
- Professor of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine
- Harvard Medical School
- Deputy Editor
- James F Wiley, II, MD, MPH
James F Wiley, II, MD, MPH
- Senior Deputy Editor — UpToDate
- Deputy Editor — Adult and Pediatric Emergency Medicine
- Deputy Editor — Primary Care Sports Medicine (Adolescents and Adults)
- Clinical Professor of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine/Traumatology
- University of Connecticut School of Medicine
The evaluation and treatment of straddle injuries in children are presented here. The physical examination of the perineum in children, scrotal trauma in children and adolescents, blunt and penetrating genitourinary trauma, and lower genital tract trauma in women are discussed separately:
- Waltzman ML, Shannon M, Bowen AP, Bailey MC. Monkeybar injuries: complications of play. Pediatrics 1999; 103:e58.
- Scheidler MG, Schultz BL, Schall L, Ford HR. Mechanisms of blunt perineal injury in female pediatric patients. J Pediatr Surg 2000; 35:1317.
- Dowd MD, Fitzmaurice L, Knapp JF, Mooney D. The interpretation of urogenital findings in children with straddle injuries. J Pediatr Surg 1994; 29:7.
- Bond GR, Dowd MD, Landsman I, Rimsza M. Unintentional perineal injury in prepubescent girls: a multicenter, prospective report of 56 girls. Pediatrics 1995; 95:628.
- Spitzer RF, Kives S, Caccia N, et al. Retrospective review of unintentional female genital trauma at a pediatric referral center. Pediatr Emerg Care 2008; 24:831.
- Jones JG, Worthington T. Genital and anal injuries requiring surgical repair in females less than 21 years of age. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2008; 21:207.
- Pokorny SF, Pokorny WJ, Kramer W. Acute genital injury in the prepubertal girl. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1992; 166:1461.
- Lynch JM, Gardner MJ, Albanese CT. Blunt urogenital trauma in prepubescent female patients: more than meets the eye! Pediatr Emerg Care 1995; 11:372.
- Iqbal CW, Jrebi NY, Zielinski MD, et al. Patterns of accidental genital trauma in young girls and indications for operative management. J Pediatr Surg 2010; 45:930.
- Pokorny SF. Genital trauma. Clin Obstet Gynecol 1997; 40:219.
- Benjamins LJ. Genital trauma in pediatric and adolescent females. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2009; 22:129.
- Hoefgen HR, Merritt DF. Rope swing injuries resulting in vulvar trauma. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2015; 28:e13.
- Muram D, Levitt CJ, Frasier LD, et al. Genital injuries. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2003; 16:149.
- Garcia CT, Thompson VT. Genitourinary trauma. In: Textbook of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 6th ed, Fleisher GR, Ludwig S (Eds), Wolters Kluwer Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia 2010. p.1316.
- ETIOLOGY AND CLASSIFICATION
- Physical examination
- - Analgesia
- - Genital examination
- Findings suggesting child abuse
- Ability to void
- Ancillary studies
- INDICATIONS FOR SPECIALTY REFERRAL OR CONSULTATION
- INITIAL MANAGEMENT
- DEFINITIVE MANAGEMENT AND OUTCOMES
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS