Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in children: Epidemiology and clinical features
- Vance G Fowler, Jr, MD
Vance G Fowler, Jr, MD
- Professor of Medicine
- Duke University Medical Center
- Daniel J Sexton, MD
Daniel J Sexton, MD
- Editor-in-Chief — Infectious Diseases
- Section Editor — Bacterial Infections
- Professor of Medicine
- Duke University Medical Center
- Sheldon L Kaplan, MD
Sheldon L Kaplan, MD
- Editor-in-Chief — Pediatrics
- Section Editor — Pediatric Infectious Diseases
- Professor and Vice Chairman for Clinical Affairs
- Baylor College of Medicine
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of both community-associated and hospital-acquired bacteremia. S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, even with appropriate therapy.
Several underlying conditions predispose patients to the development of SAB. The presence of individual risk factors substantially affects clinical management. Thus, clinicians need to inquire specifically as to the presence or absence of these risk factors before making clinical decisions regarding treatment.
The epidemiology and clinical features of SAB in children will be reviewed here. The management and outcome of SAB in children are discussed separately. (See "Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in children: Management and outcome".)
Bacteremia caused by S. aureus can be divided into three categories:
●Hospital-onset healthcare-acquired (previously known as hospital-acquired or nosocomial)
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- Hospital-onset healthcare-acquired
- Community-onset healthcare-associated
- ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE
- Methicillin resistance
- - CA-MRSA
- Vancomycin resistance
- RISK FACTORS
- Intravascular catheters
- Implanted foreign body
- Underlying medical conditions
- Nasal colonization
- Injection drug use
- CLINICAL FEATURES
- Sepsis and toxic shock syndrome
- Bone and joint infections
- - Osteomyelitis
- - Septic arthritis
- Intravascular catheter infection
- Infective endocarditis