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Standard immunizations for children and adolescents

Author
Jan E Drutz, MD
Section Editors
Teresa K Duryea, MD
Morven S Edwards, MD
Deputy Editor
Mary M Torchia, MD

INTRODUCTION

The national vaccine immunization program, directed principally at children, is one of the most successful examples of effective preventive care in the United States. One of the most dramatic examples of the benefits of appropriate immunization is the marked decrease in cases of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) infection since the introduction of Hib conjugate vaccines (HbCVs) in December 1987. The number of cases in children younger than five years of age declined by >99 percent by 2000 [1]. To further emphasize the success of the immunization program, it is important to note the remarkable benefits achieved with recommended administration of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (figure 1). (See "Pneumococcal (Streptococcus pneumoniae) conjugate vaccines in children", section on 'Efficacy and effectiveness' and "Prevention of Haemophilus influenzae type b infection", section on 'Efficacy/effectiveness'.)

Prevention of disease is essential for both patient health and control of medical costs. With rapid advances in virology, immunology, cell biology, and genetics, newer and more effective vaccines have been licensed and produced. To stay abreast of ongoing breakthroughs, immunization guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), the Committee on Infectious Diseases of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) are revised and updated continuously (figure 2A-B and table 1A-B) [2].

The preparations, dosing schedule, contraindications, and adverse reactions to vaccines included in the recommended childhood immunization schedule are reviewed here. Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliovirus, pneumococcal, Hib, influenza, rotavirus, meningococcal, and human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization, addressed briefly here, are discussed in detail separately. (See appropriate topic reviews).

Other vaccines, which are not currently part of the recommended childhood immunization schedule, are discussed separately. (See "Vaccinia virus as the smallpox vaccine" and "Immunizations for travel".)

OVERVIEW

Immunization against hepatitis A and B, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, H. influenzae type b (Hib), polio, rotavirus, measles, mumps, rubella, varicella-zoster virus (VZV), pneumococcus, influenza, meningococcus, and human papillomavirus (HPV) is considered the standard for the United States (figure 2A-B) [2].

                          

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Literature review current through: Nov 2016. | This topic last updated: Fri Nov 11 00:00:00 GMT+00:00 2016.
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