Sports participation in children and adolescents: The preparticipation physical evaluation
- Albert C Hergenroeder, MD
Albert C Hergenroeder, MD
- Section Editor — Pediatric Sports Medicine; Adolescent Sports Medicine
- Professor & Chief of Pediatrics, Adolescent Medicine and Sports Medicine
- Baylor College of Medicine
- Section Editors
- Joseph Chorley, MD
Joseph Chorley, MD
- Section Editor — Pediatric Sports Medicine; Adolescent Sports Medicine
- Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Adolescent Medicine, and Sports Medicine
- Baylor College of Medicine
- John K Triedman, MD
John K Triedman, MD
- Section Editor — Pediatric Cardiology
- Professor of Pediatrics
- Harvard Medical School
Approximately 30 million children and adolescents participate in organized sports in the United States. The standard of care is that these athletes have a preparticipation physical evaluation (PPE) before the season begins .
The PPE in children and adolescents is reviewed here. Broader guidelines for preventive care in adolescents are presented separately. (See "Guidelines for adolescent preventive services".)
Additional aspects of sports participation in children and adolescents are presented separately:
●Benefits of physical activity and strength training (see "Physical activity and strength training in children and adolescents: An overview")
●Sports-related concussion (see "Sideline evaluation of concussion" and "Concussion in children and adolescents: Clinical manifestations and diagnosis" and "Concussion in children and adolescents: Management")
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- Consensus guidelines
- Goals of the PPE
- Unnecessary restriction
- PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
- COMPONENTS OF THE EVALUATION
- Evaluation forms
- Medical history
- - Injury history
- - Cardiovascular history
- - Review of symptoms
- Musculoskeletal examination
- Cardiovascular examination
- Targeted PE
- LABORATORY TESTING
- STRENGTH EVALUATION
- NONINVASIVE CARDIOVASCULAR TESTING
- SPORTS PARTICIPATION
- Restrictions to participation
- Specific conditions
- Legal issues
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS