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Spondyloarthritis in children

Sarah Ringold, MD, MS
Section Editor
Marisa Klein-Gitelman, MD, MPH
Deputy Editor
Elizabeth TePas, MD, MS


In children, the spondyloarthropathies are a group of rheumatic diseases characterized by enthesitis and arthritis, most frequently involving the lower extremities initially and, in a variable proportion of cases, the sacroiliac and spinal joints later in the disease course [1].

The clinical aspects of childhood spondyloarthritis, particularly enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA), are discussed here. Other categories of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) are discussed separately. (See "Classification of juvenile arthritis" and "Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis: Clinical manifestations and diagnosis" and "Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis: Course, prognosis, and complications" and "Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis: Treatment" and "Polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis: Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and complications" and "Polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis: Treatment" and "Oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis" and "Psoriatic juvenile idiopathic arthritis: Pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis" and "Psoriatic juvenile idiopathic arthritis: Management and prognosis".)

Detailed discussions of the corresponding disorders in the adult, including psoriatic arthritis, reactive arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis (AS), are presented separately. Arthritis associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and other gastrointestinal diseases is also discussed in detail separately. (See "Overview of the clinical manifestations and classification of spondyloarthritis" and "Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of peripheral spondyloarthritis in adults" and "Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis" and "Reactive arthritis" and "Clinical manifestations of axial spondyloarthritis (ankylosing spondylitis and nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis) in adults" and "Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of arthritis associated with inflammatory bowel disease and other gastrointestinal diseases".)


The terms "spondyloarthropathy," "spondyloarthropathies," "spondyloarthritis," and "spondyloarthritides" are used to refer to a group of related seronegative (ie, rheumatoid-factor negative) inflammatory diseases generally characterized by involvement of the spine (sacroiliitis and spondylitis), large joints (most frequently lower limb asymmetric oligoarthritis), and entheses (enthesitis or enthesopathy; inflammation of the sites where tendons, ligaments, or joint capsule insert into the bone). Spondyloarthritides are strongly associated with the presence of human-leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27.

Diseases that are included in this group are:

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Literature review current through: Dec 2017. | This topic last updated: Jan 12, 2018.
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