Special situations in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus
- Lynne L Levitsky, MD
Lynne L Levitsky, MD
- Associate Professor of Pediatrics
- Harvard Medical School
- Madhusmita Misra, MD, MPH
Madhusmita Misra, MD, MPH
- Pediatric Endocrine and Neuroendocrine Units
- Mass General Hospital for Children and Harvard Medical School
Type 1 diabetes mellitus, one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood, is caused by insulin deficiency resulting from the destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. (See "Pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus".)
In children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes, there are circumstances, such as acute illnesses, when glucose metabolism is significantly altered, requiring additional monitoring of blood glucose and ketones and/or adjustment of the child's daily insulin dose. The school or daycare setting also presents challenges in the management of the insulin-dependent child.
Managing the child or adolescent with type 1 diabetes in settings with altered insulin requirements and at school or daycare is reviewed here. Other aspects of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents are discussed in separate topic reviews:
- Silverstein J, Klingensmith G, Copeland K, et al. Care of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care 2005; 28:186.
- Brink S, Joel D, Laffel L, et al. ISPAD Clinical Practice Consensus Guidelines 2014. Sick day management in children and adolescents with diabetes. Pediatr Diabetes 2014; 15 Suppl 20:193.
- Plotnick LP, Klingensmith GJ, Silverstein J, Rosenbloom AL. Diabetes mellitus. In: Principles and Practice of Pediatric Endocrinology, Kappy MS, Allen DB, Geffner ME (Eds), Charles C Thomas, Springfield 2005. p.635.
- Klingensmith G, Kaufman F, Schatz D, et al. Diabetes care in the school and day care setting. Diabetes Care 2004; 27 Suppl 1:S122.
- Wagner J, Heapy A, James A, Abbott G. Brief report: glycemic control, quality of life, and school experiences among students with diabetes. J Pediatr Psychol 2006; 31:764.
- Klingensmith G, Kaufman F, Schatz D, et al. Care of children with diabetes in the school and day care setting. Diabetes Care 2003; 26 Suppl 1:S131.
- National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP). "Helping the Student with Diabetes Succeed: A Guide for School Personnel. http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-communication-programs/ndep/health-care-professionals/school-guide/Pages/publicationdetail.aspx (Accessed on May 29, 2016).