Sleep apnea and other causes of impaired sleep in older adults
- Steven H Feinsilver, MD
Steven H Feinsilver, MD
- Professor of Medicine
- Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine
- Section Editors
- Kenneth E Schmader, MD
Kenneth E Schmader, MD
- Editor in Chief — Geriatric Medicine
- Section Editor — Geriatrics
- Chief, Division of Geriatrics
- Duke University
- Director, Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center
- Durham VA Medical Centers
- Nancy Collop, MD
Nancy Collop, MD
- Editor-in-Chief — Sleep Medicine
- Section Editor — Sleep Related Breathing Disorders
- Professor of Medicine and Neurology
- Director, Emory Sleep Center, Emory University
Sleep-related complaints are common among older adults (ie, adults >65 years old). It is often difficult to distinguish whether the impaired sleep that leads to such complaints is a consequence of normal aging or a disease process, such as a primary sleep disorder or a medical illness [1,2]. The causes of impaired sleep in older adults are reviewed here, with a focus on sleep apnea.
THE EFFECTS OF NORMAL AGING ON SLEEP
Sleep-related changes are a normal consequence of aging (table 1):
●Phase advance – Sleep during the early morning hours is reduced and peak sleepiness occurs earlier in the evening [2,3]
●Sleep efficiency – The ratio of time asleep to time in bed declines, largely due to more nocturnal awakenings 
●Sleep time – Total time spent asleep decreases, although the reduction in nocturnal sleep may be partially compensated by increased daytime napping 
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