Sinoatrial nodal reentrant tachycardia (SANRT)
- Munther K Homoud, MD
Munther K Homoud, MD
- Associate Professor of Medicine
- Tufts University School of Medicine
Atrial tachycardias have traditionally been characterized as automatic, triggered, or reentrant. However, the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology in 2001 proposed a classification that takes into consideration both anatomic features and electrophysiologic mechanisms . Atrial tachycardia is the overriding term that includes two major categories:
●Focal atrial tachycardia due to an automatic, triggered, or microreentrant mechanism
●Macroreentrant atrial tachycardia, including typical atrial flutter and other well-characterized macroreentrant circuits in the right and left atrium
Sinoatrial nodal reentrant tachycardia (SANRT), also called sinus node reentry or sinus node reentrant tachycardia, falls into the latter group of macroreentrant arrhythmias. This topic will discuss the mechanisms, clinical manifestations, and treatment of SANRT. Discussions of other specific atrial arrhythmias are presented separately. (See "Focal atrial tachycardia" and "Intraatrial reentrant tachycardia" and "Overview of atrial flutter".)
DEFINITION AND MECHANISMS
Initially described in the 1940s, SANRT has often been considered a form of atrial tachycardia. However, SANRT has an activation sequence similar to that of normal sinus rhythm so that the P waves on the surface ECG appear to be normal. In comparison, intraatrial reentry has a different activation sequence of atrial depolarization, leading to a P wave morphology that differs from that of normal sinus rhythm. (See "Intraatrial reentrant tachycardia".)
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