Serum tumor markers in testicular germ cell tumors
- M Dror Michaelson, MD, PhD
M Dror Michaelson, MD, PhD
- Associate Professor in Medicine
- Harvard Medical School
- William K Oh, MD
William K Oh, MD
- Section Editor — Testicular Cancer
- Professor of Medicine
- Mount Sinai School of Medicine
- Chief, Division of Hematology Oncology
- Tisch Cancer Institute
Testicular germ cell tumors (GCTs) are one of the most curable solid neoplasms due to remarkable treatment advances that began in the late 1970s. Prior to that time, testicular cancer accounted for 11 percent of cancer deaths in men between the ages of 25 and 34, and the five-year survival rate was 64 percent . Currently, the five-year survival rate is over 95 percent, largely due to better understanding of the natural history of testicular tumors, improved staging and surgical techniques, the use of effective platinum-based combination chemotherapy, and the availability of highly sensitive serum tumor markers to detect minimal residual disease. (See "Overview of the treatment of testicular germ cell tumors".)
Three serum tumor markers have established roles in the management of men with testicular germ cell tumors:
●The beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG)
●Alpha fetoprotein (AFP)
●Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)
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- HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN
- Nonseminomatous germ cell tumors
- False-positive results
- Hyperthyroidism and hCG
- ALPHA FETOPROTEIN
- Nonseminomatous germ cell tumors
- Half-life of AFP
- False-positive AFP
- LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE
- CLINICAL APPLICATIONS
- Prognostic value and risk stratification
- Monitoring response to therapy
- - NSGCT patients
- - Seminoma patients
- EXTRAGONADAL GCTS
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS