The availability of cervical cytology to screen for cervical cancer often permits diagnosis at the preinvasive stage, when treatment can almost always prevent progression to invasive cancer. For this reason, screening for cervical cancer is important in all women. Screening for cervical cancer is of particular concern to HIV-infected women and adolescents, since the incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), as confirmed by colposcopy, is four to five times higher in HIV-positive women and adolescents compared to HIV-negative women and adolescents with high-risk sexual behaviors [1-3].
CIN is common in HIV-infected women because [4-8]:
●Both HIV and human papillomavirus (HPV) are sexually transmitted, and
●HIV-infected women are more likely to have persistent HPV infection, and
●Persistent infection with one or more oncogenic HPV subtypes is a major factor in the pathogenesis of premalignant and malignant cervical disease