Sarcoidosis, a multisystem disorder of unknown etiology, is characterized pathologically by the presence of noncaseating granulomas in affected organs (see "Pathogenesis of sarcoidosis"). It typically affects young adults, and, although any organ may be affected, the disorder commonly presents with one or more of the following three abnormalities:
- Bilateral hilar adenopathy
- Pulmonary infiltrates
- Skin and/or eye lesions
Musculoskeletal disease is a less common problem. However, joint manifestations may be clinically significant in patients with acute disease . Overall, 4 to 38 percent of patients with sarcoidosis have one or more musculoskeletal manifestations .
The bone, muscle, and vascular manifestations of sarcoidosis other than arthritis will be reviewed here. General issues related to sarcoidosis and its pathogenesis are discussed separately. (See "Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of pulmonary sarcoidosis" and "Pathogenesis of sarcoidosis".)
The American Thoracic Society (ATS) statement on sarcoidosis, as well as other ATS guidelines, can be accessed through the ATS web site at www.thoracic.org/statements.