Sacrococcygeal germ cell tumors
- Rachel A Egler, MD
Rachel A Egler, MD
- Assistant Professor of Pediatrics
- Case Western Reserve University
- Deborah Levine, MD
Deborah Levine, MD
- Section Editor — Imaging
- Professor of Radiology
- Director of Ob/Gyn Ultrasound
- Department of Radiology
- Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
- Louise Wilkins-Haug, MD, PhD
Louise Wilkins-Haug, MD, PhD
- Section Editor — Prenatal Diagnosis and Genetics
- Professor of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
- Harvard Medical School
- Section Editors
- Charles J Lockwood, MD, MHCM
Charles J Lockwood, MD, MHCM
- Section Editor — Obstetrics
- Senior Vice President, USF Health
- Dean, Morsani College of Medicine
- Professor, Obstetrics and Gynecology
- University of South Florida
- Alberto S Pappo, MD
Alberto S Pappo, MD
- Section Editor — Pediatric Oncology
- Head of Solid Malignancies Program
- St. Jude Children's Research Hospital
- Deputy Editors
- April F Eichler, MD, MPH
April F Eichler, MD, MPH
- Senior Deputy Editor — UpToDate
- Deputy Editor — Neurology and Sleep Medicine
- Assistant Professor of Neurology
- Harvard Medical School
- Vanessa A Barss, MD, FACOG
Vanessa A Barss, MD, FACOG
- Senior Deputy Editor — UpToDate
- Deputy Editor — Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women's Health
- Associate Clinical Professor of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology
- Harvard Medical School
Germ cell tumors (GCTs) that arise outside the testes or the ovaries are classified as extragonadal. Extragonadal GCTs typically arise in midline locations, and specific sites vary with age. In adults, the most common sites are the anterior mediastinum, retroperitoneum, and the pineal and suprasellar regions. In infants and young children, sacrococcygeal teratomas (SCTs) are the most common GCTs.
SCTs are discussed here. Extragonadal GCTs arising in the central nervous system and in the mediastinum and retroperitoneum are discussed elsewhere. (See "Intracranial germ cell tumors" and "Extragonadal germ cell tumors involving the mediastinum and retroperitoneum".)
SCT is the most common GCT of childhood. In the pediatric population, SCTs account for 40 percent of all GCTs and up to 78 percent of all extragonadal GCTs. Rarely, sacrococcygeal teratomas may present in adulthood [1,2].
SCT is the most frequently recognized fetal neoplasm, with an estimated incidence of about 1 in 27,000 . SCT are more common in females than males, with a 3 to 4:1 ratio [4,5]. SCTs with malignant elements generally are not seen in infants. The incidence of malignant elements within SCTs increases with age.
Histology — Teratomas often are comprised of cells that represent all three germ cell layers. They have solid, cystic or mixed components. Unlike teratomas in other locations, SCTs often do not have a capsule or pseudocapsule, which contributes to the difficulty in achieving a complete resection.
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