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Risk factors and prevention of hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia in adults

Author
Thomas M File, Jr, MD
Section Editor
John G Bartlett, MD
Deputy Editor
Anna R Thorner, MD

INTRODUCTION

Hospital-acquired (or nosocomial) pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are important causes of morbidity and mortality despite improved antimicrobial therapy, supportive care, and prevention. The risk factors and prevention of HAP and VAP will be reviewed here.

The clinical presentation, diagnosis, epidemiology, pathogenesis, microbiology, and treatment of HAP and VAP are discussed separately. (See "Clinical presentation and diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia" and "Epidemiology, pathogenesis, microbiology, and diagnosis of hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia in adults" and "Treatment of hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia in adults".)

DEFINITIONS

Pneumonia types — The 2016 Infectious Disease Society of America/American Thoracic Society (IDSA/ATS) guidelines distinguish the following types of pneumonia [1]:

Hospital-acquired (or nosocomial) pneumonia (HAP) is pneumonia that occurs 48 hours or more after admission and did not appear to be incubating at the time of admission.

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a type of pneumonia that develops more than 48 to 72 hours after endotracheal intubation.

               

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Literature review current through: Nov 2016. | This topic last updated: Tue Sep 27 00:00:00 GMT 2016.
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