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Retinoblastoma: Treatment and outcome

Paul L Kaufman, MD
Jonathan Kim, MD
Jesse L Berry, MD
Section Editors
Evelyn A Paysse, MD
Alberto S Pappo, MD
Deputy Editor
Carrie Armsby, MD, MPH


Retinoblastoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy of childhood and accounts for 10 to 15 percent of cancers within the first year of life [1]. Retinoblastoma typically presents as leukocoria (picture 1) in a child under the age of two years. Untreated retinoblastoma is a deadly disease; however, with advances in treatment, survival in the contemporary era is >95 percent. Prompt referral to an ocular oncologist and appropriate management by a multidisciplinary team are necessary to optimize visual outcome and survival.

The clinical treatment and outcome of retinoblastoma are reviewed here. The clinical presentation, evaluation, and diagnosis of retinoblastoma and the approach to children with leukocoria are discussed separately. (See "Retinoblastoma: Clinical presentation, evaluation, and diagnosis" and "Approach to the child with leukocoria".)


Management of children with retinoblastoma is best accomplished by a multidisciplinary team, which can minimize the number of clinic visits and provide the caregivers with opportunities to discuss the full spectrum of treatment and outcomes. The multidisciplinary team may include the following health care professionals:

Pediatric ophthalmologist

Primary care practitioner


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Literature review current through: Sep 2016. | This topic last updated: Aug 30, 2016.
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