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Reading difficulty in children: Interventions

Author
S Sutton Hamilton, MD
Section Editors
Carolyn Bridgemohan, MD
Marc C Patterson, MD, FRACP
Deputy Editor
Mary M Torchia, MD

INTRODUCTION

Reading is critical to the academic, economic, and social success of children [1]. However, many children complete schooling without achieving more than basic literacy [2]. Pediatric clinicians are well positioned to identify children at risk for reading difficulties and children who have unexpected difficulties in learning to read. Early identification and timely intervention for such children improve long-term outcome.

Interventions for children with reading difficulty in children will be discussed here. Normal reading development and the epidemiology, etiology, clinical features, and evaluation of reading difficulty are discussed separately. (See "Reading difficulty in children: Normal reading development and etiology of reading difficulty" and "Reading difficulty in children: Clinical features and evaluation".)

General issues related to educational interventions for children with learning disability and the evolution of laws related to special education in the United States also are discussed separately. (See "Specific learning disabilities in children: Educational management" and "Definitions of specific learning disability and laws pertaining to learning disabilities in the United States".)

TERMINOLOGY

A variety of terms are used to describe reading problems. Different terms may be used in different settings and by different groups (eg, educators, healthcare providers). Definitions for the terms that are used in this topic review are provided below. A detailed discussion of terminology is provided separately. (See "Reading difficulty in children: Normal reading development and etiology of reading difficulty", section on 'Terminology and conceptual framework'.)

Reading difficulty — "Reading difficulty" is defined from a normative perspective (ie, how a child performs in reading compared with peers or educational expectations) [3]. Reading difficulty has a number of causes, one of which is reading disability.

                     

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Literature review current through: Nov 2016. | This topic last updated: Wed Nov 16 00:00:00 GMT+00:00 2016.
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